globe
  1. Core Readings, Websites and Journals 58 items
    1. Books 36 items
      1. There is no single 'textbook' for the course, and different texts will be used in each session. The following books are recommended as general introductory/core texts for the course, in addition to the more specific texts for each week. 

         

        If you are new to sociology I would recommend having a sociology dictionary at hand, the best of which is:

      2. If you wanted to buy one book, a good overall text for the course is:

      3. Other general books on class and other vectors of inequalities are:

         

         

      4. Global inequalities beyond occidentalism - Manuela Boatcă, Taylor & Francis Group 2016

        Book 

      5. Segregation: a global history of divided cities - Carl Husemoller Nightingale 2012

        Book 

      6. Expulsions: brutality and complexity in the global economy - Saskia Sassen 2014

        Book 

      7. Approaches to Class Analysis - Erik Olin Wright 2005 (electronic resource)

        Book 

      8. A very good introduction to the economic history of global inequality is:

      9. A good, recent, statistically based discussion of UK-level inequality is:

      10. Understanding inequalities: stratification and difference - Lucinda Platt c2011

        Book 

      11. If you are interested in class in Scotland I would recommend:

      12. Understanding Scotland: the sociology of a nation - David McCrone, Ebooks Corporation Limited 2001 (electronic resource)

        Book 

      13. Good texts which would be relevant to the Bourdieusian/class as cultural thesis are the following:

         

         

      14. Class: feminist and cultural perspectives - Ulrika Holgersson, Charlotte Merton, Taylor & Francis Group 2017

        Book 

      15. Class analysis and social transformation - Michael Savage 2000

        Book 

      16. Good texts which attack the concept of class, from various perspectives include:

      17. Economies of signs and space - Scott Lash, John Urry 1994

        Book 

      18. The death of class - Jan Pakulski, Malcolm Waters 1996

        Book 

      19. On gender and race, ethnicity and class

         

         

      20. Racialized boundaries: race, nation, gender, colour and class and the anti-racist struggle - Floya Anthias, Harriet Cain, Nira Yuval-Davis 1992

        Book 

      21. Race and ethnicity in the 21st century - Alice Bloch, John Solomos 2010

        Book 

      22. Gender: in world perspective - Raewyn Connell, Rebecca Pearse 2015

        Book 

      23. Ethnicity: racism, class and culture - Steve Fenton 1999

        Book 

      24. Where we stand: class matters - bell hooks 2000

        Book 

      25. Global critical race feminism: an international reader - Adrien Katherine Wing c2000

        Book 

      26. Making race matter: bodies, space, and identity - Claire E. Alexander, Caroline Knowles 2005

        Book 

      27. Other books on global inequalities

         

    2. Internet Resources 8 items
      1. The main sources for this course are given under the reading lists, however there are some online resources you may find interesting:

      2. Erik Olin Wright's Home Page

        Webpage  Erik Olin Wright’s website, which includes copies of almost everything he’s ever written.

      3. Marxists Internet Archive

        Webpage  If you’re interested in Marxist understanding of class, this is basically a treasure trove, with copies of most of Marx and Engels’ work and extracts from others.

      4. BBC - Archive - Working Class Britain - Underclass to hero, how the working class has been portrayed

        Webpage  An archive of the BBC’s portrayal of the working class through the years. I think their subtitle (‘underclass to hero’) is crying out for some sociological analysis.

      5. Office for National Statistics (ONS) - ONS

        Webpage  This is where you’ll find all the information concerning the British government’s class scale.

      6. Home - Economic and Social Research Council

        Website  The ESRC is the British government’s funding body for social science research. Here you’ll find some information on research they’ve funded concerning inequality.

      7. The British Sociological Association

        Website  This is the website of the British Sociological Association. You may well find some of the links listed here useful, or it may be useful for some background into British Sociology.

      8. No Way To Make a Living

        Website  A blog run by sociologists of work, Lynne Pettinger and Dawn Lyon. This isn’t directly about class, but provides interesting read in relation to work.

    3. Journals 14 items
      1. Academic journals are of course central to academia as a field. At this point in your academic career, I would expect you to begin seeing them as one of your (if not, the) main sources of information. This is especially true for your assessments; the best work will make use of resources beyond the reading list and the best way of locating such work is by looking through journals.

         

        Given the centrality of class and stratification to sociological research, a look at recent copies of various journals is likely to provide some interesting case studies. Some of the best for this course include:

      2. Sociology: the journal of the British Sociological Association - British Sociological Association, Thomson Gale (Firm) 1967- (electronic resource)

        Journal 

      3. Sociological research - EBSCO Publishing (Firm) ©1992- (electronic resource)

        Journal 

      4. The sociological review - University of Keele, EBSCO Publishing (Firm) (electronic resource)

        Journal 

      5. British journal of sociology of education - JSTOR (Organization) 1980- (electronic resource)

        Journal 

      6. Acta sociologica - Scandinavian Sociological Association, Nordic Sociological Association, EBSCO Publishing (Firm), JSTOR (Organization) 1955- (electronic resource)

        Journal 

      7. Contemporary sociology - American Sociological Association, EBSCO Publishing (Firm), JSTOR (Organization) 1972- (electronic resource)

        Journal 

      8. Current sociology - International Sociological Association (electronic resource)

        Journal 

      9. Gender & society: official publication of Sociologists for Women in Society - Sociologists for Women in Society (U.S.), JSTOR (Organization), Thomson Gale (Firm) (electronic resource)

        Journal 

      10. Race & class - Thomson Gale (Firm) (electronic resource)

        Journal 

      11. Journal of ethnic and migration studies - EBSCO Publishing (Firm) (electronic resource)

        Journal 

      12. Ethnic & racial studies - EBSCO Publishing (Firm) (electronic resource)

        Journal 

      13. The international migration review - Center for Migration Studies (U.S.), Centro studi emigrazione, EBSCO Publishing (Firm), JSTOR (Organization) 1966- (electronic resource)

        Journal 

  2. 1. Introduction: Is the world equal? 8 items
    1. Essential Readings 2 items
      NB. When I list more than one reading as ‘essential’, they are listed in order of importance.
      1. Facing An Unequal World: Challenges for Global Sociology (SAGE Studies in International Sociology) - Raquel Sosa Elizaga 6 April 2018

        Book Essential See Chapter: Sassen, S. 2018. When Extractive Logics Rule: Proliferating Expulsions, pp. 17-26, available via Online Resource button.

    2. Further Reading 6 items
      1. Class and stratification - Rosemary Crompton 2015

        Book Further See: Chapters 2-4

      2. Understanding inequalities: stratification and difference - Lucinda Platt c2011

        Book Further See: Chapters 2 and 7. Chapter 2 'Class' available via the Online Resource button.

      3. Inequality: Causes and Consequences - Kathryn M. Neckerman and Florencia Torche 2007

        Article Further

      4. Class in contemporary Britain - Kenneth Roberts, Kenneth Roberts c2011

        Book Further See: Chapter 8.

      5. Social Trends 40: Full Report 2010

        Document Further Chapters are themed by social issues, e.g. education, income, health etc., but almost all discuss an element of inequality. Read the two or three which seem most interesting to you.

  3. 2. The Marxist Theory of Class and its Critics 15 items
    1. Essential Reading 5 items
      1. Critical companion to contemporary Marxism 2009

        Book Essential See: Chibber, Vivek. 2009. “Developments in Marxist Class Analysis", pp. 353-367.

      2. The class struggle in the ancient Greek world: from the Archaic Age to the Arab Conquests - G. E. M. De Ste. Croix 1981

        Book Essential See: pp. 31-69, 81-98, available via Online Resource button. [Note: the pages indicated here are not about Ancient Greece! This is probably the best outline and discussion of Marx’s thinking on social class]

      3. Karl Marx's theory of revolution: Volume 22: The politics of social classes - Hal Draper, Askews & Holts Library Services 1978

        Book Essential See: vol. 2, The Politics of Social Classes, pp. 33-80.

    2. Critiques and responses 10 items
      1. Class and stratification - Rosemary Crompton 2015

        Book  See: pp. 21-48.

      2. Marxist class theory for a skeptical world - Raju J. Das 2018

        Book 

      3. The class structure of the advanced societies - Anthony Giddens 1981, c1980

        Book  See: pp. 13-98.

      4. The death of class - Jan Pakulski, Malcolm Waters 1996

        Book 

      5. Classes - Erik Olin Wright 1997, c1985

        Book 

      6. Understanding class - Erik Olin Wright 2015

        Book  See: Wright, Erik Olin. 2015. “The Death of Class Debate”, pp. 139-156.

      7. The Debate on classes - Erik Olin Wright 1989

        Book 

  4. 3. The New Middle Class 18 items
    Social classes change over time. In this class we will look at the emerging “middle class” as a sociologically significant phenomenon for understanding the ways inequalities are currently shifting, in a time of changing economic organization (production and consumption patterns, types of industries) and related social transformations.
    1. Readings 18 items
      1. Social change and the middle classes - Tim Butler, Michael Savage, Dawson Books 1995

        Book  See: Carter Bob and Peter Fairbrother. 1955. “The Remaking of the State Middle Class,” pp. 133-147.

      2. The rise of the creative class, revisited - Richard L. Florida 2012

        Book 

      3. Remembering elites - Michael Savage, Karel Williams 2008

        Book  See: Du Gay, Paul. 2008. “Keyser Soze Elites: Market Populism and the Politics of Institutional Change.” Available via the Online Resource button.

      4. The new middle class and democracy in global perspective - Ronald M. Glassman 1997

        Book 

      5. The new working class?: white-collar workers and their organizations : a reader - Richard Hyman, Robert Price 1983

        Book  See: pp. 74-144.

      6. Rich people things: [real life secrets of the predator class] - Chris Lehmann 2011

        Book 

      7. Between labour and capital - Pat Walker 1979

        Book 

  5. 4. Pierre Bourdieu and Cultural Capital 15 items
    Inequalities and stratification cannot be fully understood without looking at Bourdieu’s contribution to this sociological field. Perhaps his most relevant contribution has been the concept of “Cultural Capital”, which we will discuss in-depth in this class. We will look at how “cultural capital” shapes economic inequalities but also how it operates as a vector for racial inequalities and the importance of keeping this kind of “capital” always in focus for understanding inequalities at any scale, i.e. urban, national or global.
    1. Core texts by Bourdieu 4 items
      1. Education: culture, economy, and society - A. H. Halsey 1997

        Book  See: Bourdieu, Pierre (1997) ‘The Forms of Capital’

      2. Distinction: a social critique of the judgement of taste - Pierre Bourdieu, Richard Nice, Tony Bennett, Ebooks Corporation Limited 2010

        Book  Try as much as you can but perhaps especially chapter 2.

      3. Language and symbolic power - Pierre Bourdieu, Pierre Bourdieu, John B. Thompson 1991

        Book  See: Bourdieu, Pierre (1991) ‘The Production and Reproduction of Legitimate Language’

    2. Some secondary readings and analysis: 4 items
      1. Introduction: Cultural capital—Histories, limits, prospects - Tony Bennett, Elizabeth Silva 12/2011

        Article  See the rest of the volume for useful empirical studies.

      2. Pierre Bourdieu: key concepts - Michael Grenfell, Dawson Books 2008 (electronic resource)

        Book  See: Crossley, Nick (2008) ‘Social Class’

      3. Rethinking class: culture, identities and lifestyles - Fiona Devine 2005

        Book  See: Devine, Fiona and Savage, Mike (2005) ‘The Cultural Turn, Sociology and Class Analysis’. Available via the Online Resource button.

      4. Approaches to Class Analysis - Erik Olin Wright 2005 (electronic resource)

        Article  See: Weininger, Elliot (2005) ‘Foundations of Pierre Bourdieu’s Class Analysis’

    3. On racialized cultural capital: 7 items
      1. The Public Identities of the Black Middle Classes: Managing Race in Public Spaces - Nicola Rollock, David Gilborn, Carol Vincent, Stephen Ball 2011

        Article 

  6. 5. The 'Death' and Rebirth of Class? 18 items
    In the immediate post-war period it seemed that the class structure had undergone some fundamental changes. The proletariat of earlier years (poor men working in manual labour jobs and involved in their trade union/local labour club), it was argued, had begun to disappear. Instead, with the emergence of ‘post-industrial’ society, those same individuals now had office or service sector jobs and, with the growth of the welfare state, poverty was not the problem it previously was. This meant this group had supposedly become middle class, with disposable income, a car, a summer holiday and broadly conservative (with a small c) or apolitical views. In the language of the time, they had undergone a process of ‘embourgeoisiement’. When you add in the entrance of women into the labour market, it seemed that the strict hold of the class system was beginning to lessen. In the most radical suggestion, it was argued that, not for the first or last time, class had ‘died’. How accurate a portrayal of this of post-industrial life? In response to these claims it was argued that in fact the shift to service or office work is no improvement at all. Such jobs were generally lower paid, unskilled, heavily surveilled and with little job satisfaction. The idea that they had produced an ‘affluent worker’ came in for heavy criticism and some argued that actually such jobs had been ‘proletarianised’. Sitting in a call centre all day is no different from working on a curvier belt, such service jobs had been ‘deskilled’, and therefore generated little change to the class structure. Lately, however, there has been a ‘rediscovery’ of class divisions, and an interest in applying Bourdieu’s model of capitals to understanding class in Britain. Here, Bourdieu’s major contribution was to shift the focus away from occupation or income and onto culture, more specifically, the way in which people use cultural knowledge and expertise to signify their class position. In the words of Bourdieu: how they utilise ‘cultural capital’. Bourdieu combined this with the concepts of social and economic capital to demonstrate how class is reproduced through the ‘habitus’ we need to acquire for the various ‘fields’ which we occupy. Middle-class taste is validated and working-class is rejected and denigrated, a process which the education system plays a large part in achieving. In particular, we focus on the way in which the middle classes demonise sections of the working class based on what they consider to be ‘pathological’ consumption choices – focusing in particular on the ‘Chav’ phenomenon in Britain. We will argue that investigating class and stratification needs to draw upon both ‘economic’ and ‘cultural’ approaches.
    1. Essential Reading 2 items
      1. Conflicts about class: debating inequality in late industrialism : a selection of readings - Ebooks Corporation Limited 2014

        Book Essential This is an excellent compilation of the key arguments on this topic. All of the extracts from it will be relevant to different aspects of the argument. I would like everyone to read the introduction, but from here, choose the ones you think sound most interesting to read, or which most fit your interests.

      2. Class analysis and social transformation - Michael Savage 2000

        Book Essential See: Chapter 5, ’Individualisation and cultural distinction’. Available via Online Resource Button.

    2. Further Reading 16 items
      1. Class inequality in austerity Britain: Power, difference and suffering - Will Atkinson, Steven Roberts, Mike Savage 2012 (electronic resource)

        Book Further

      2. Myths at work - Harriet Bradley 2000

        Book Further See section: ‘The Myth of the Death of Class’.

      3. The affluent society - John Kenneth Galbraith 1999, c1998

        Book Further

      4. The class structure of the advanced societies - Anthony Giddens 1981, c1980

        Book Further See: esp. Chapters 10-11 and 14-15.

      5. The affluent worker in the class structure - John Harry Goldthorpe 1969

        Book Further The third volume of the Affluent worker study and the one most relevant to this week.

      6. Farewell to the working class: an essay on post-industrial socialism - André Gorz 1982

        Book Further

      7. From post-industrial to post-modern society: new theories of the contemporary world - Krishan Kumar 2005

        Book Further See: Chapter 4.

      8. The death of class - Jan Pakulski, Malcolm Waters 1996

        Book Further Later, more postmodern argument for the rejection of class, but fits much of this weeks’ discussion

      9. Inclusions and exclusions in European societies - Alison E. Woodward, Martin Kohli 2001

        Book Further See: Scott J., If class is dead, why won;t it lie down?, pp. 127-146.

      10. “Chav Mum Chav Scum” - Imogen Tyler 03/2008

        Article Further

      11. Approaches to Class Analysis - Erik Olin Wright 2005 (electronic resource)

        Book Further See: Chapter 6 by Pakulski on 'post-class analysis'.

  7. 6. Class, Race and Gender: Multiple Inequalities 33 items
    In this lecture, we will explore the interrelations between class, gender, ethnic and racial inequalities through the concept of intersectionality. In particular, we will show that these inequalities are often mutually produced and reproduced through formal and informal practices in health and education. Such inequalities are often invisible to people in dominant groups.
    1. Essential Reading 2 items
    2. Further Reading 31 items
      1. Racialized boundaries: race, nation, gender, colour and class and the anti-racist struggle - Floya Anthias, Harriet Cain, Nira Yuval-Davis 1992

        Book Further See: esp. Chapter 3.

      2. Understanding inequality: the intersection of race/ethnicity, class, and gender - Barbara A. Arrighi c2007

        Book Further See: Part 4, pp. 85-102.

      3. Race and ethnicity in the 21st century - Alice Bloch, John Solomos 2010

        Book Further

      4. Stratification: social division and inequality - Wendy Bottero, Ebooks Corporation Limited 2005

        Book Further See: Chapters 6 and 7.

      5. Ethnicity without groups - Rogers Brubaker c2004

        Book 

      6. White lives: the interplay of 'race', class, and gender in everyday life - Bridget Byrne, Ebooks Corporation Limited 2006

        Book Further See: Chapter 6, pp. 104-137.

      7. Gender inequalities in the 21st century: new barriers and continuing constraints - Jacqueline L. Scott, Rosemary Crompton, Clare Lyonette 2010

        Book Further See: Crompton, R., Lyonette, C., 'Family, Class and Gender 'Strategies' in Mother's Employment and Childcare', pp. 174-92.

      8. Ethnicity - Steve Fenton, Dawson Books 2010

        Book Further See: The demise of race: the emergence of ethnicity, pp. 51-70.

      9. Racism: a beginner's guide - Alana Lentin 2008

        Book Further See: Chapter 1, pp. 1-31.

      10. Ethnicity, Social Mobility, and Public Policy: Comparing the USA and UK - Glenn C. Loury, Tariq Modood, Steven M. Teles 2005 (electronic resource)

        Book Further

      11. Key issues in women's work: female heterogeneity and the polarisation of women's employment - Catherine Hakim 1996

        Book Further See: Especially Chapters 1, 5, 6, and 8.

      12. Women, citizenship and difference - Nira Yuval-Davis, Pnina Werbner 1999

        Book Further See: Hill Collins P., Producing the mothers of the nation: race, class and contemporary US population policies.

      13. The gendered society reader 2014

        Book Further See: Part 7: The Gendered workplace.

      14. Choices of Degree or Degrees of Choice? Class, 'Race' and the Higher Education Choice Process - Diane Reay, Jacqueline Davies, Miriam David and Stephen J Ball 2001

        Article Further

      15. Race and ethnicity in the 21st century - Alice Bloch, John Solomos 2010

        Book Further See: Virdee S., Continuing Significance of ‘Race’: Racism, Anti-racist Politics and Labour Marjets, pp. 62-92.

      16. The SAGE handbook of race and ethnic studies - John Solomos, Patricia Hill Collins, Dawson Books 2010 (electronic resource)

        Book Further See: Virdee S., Racism, Class and the Dialectics of Social Transformation.

      17. Intersectionality: Multiple Inequalities in Social Theory - S. Walby, J. Armstrong, S. Strid 01/04/2012

        Article Further

      18. Theorizing patriarchy - Sylvia Walby 1990

        Book Further

  8. 7. Facing an Unequal World 27 items
    Globalization does not affect every country, every community or every person in the same way. Indeed, there are substantial differences in extent and nature of how globalization alters the lives of people between different world regions and countries. In this lecture, we will explore the growing importance of some forms of inequality in a globalising world and how they interact with more traditional bases of inequality. We will examine how globalisation has impacted social structures in societies (in both the global North and South) and potentially contributed to the widening of (some forms of) social inequalities.
    1. Essential Reading 2 items
      1. Dynamics of inequalities in a global perspective: An introduction - Vilna Bashi Treitler, Manuela Boatcă 03/2016

        Article Essential

      2. The Killing Fields of Inequality - Göran Therborn 10/2012

        Article Essential

    2. Further Reading 25 items
      1. Collateral damage: social inequalities in a global age - Zygmunt Bauman c2011

        Book Further

      2. Facing An Unequal World: Challenges for Global Sociology (SAGE Studies in International Sociology) - Raquel Sosa Elizaga 6 April 2018

        Book Further See: Burawoy, M. 'Facing an Unequal World: Challenges for a Global Sociology', pp. 3-27.

      3. Global sociology - Robin Cohen, Paul M. Kennedy, Maud Perrier 2013

        Book Further

      4. Globalisation and Social Class - J. H. Goldthorpe 07/2002

        Article Further

      5. Globalization, poverty and inequality: between a rock and a hard place - Raphael Kaplinsky 2005

        Book Further

      6. Understanding the dynamics of global inequality: social exclusion, power shift, and structural changes - SpringerLink (Online Service) 2015

        Book Further See: Janz C., Ongoing demarcations: the intersections of inequalities in a globalized world, p. 87.

      7. (Mis)recognition, social inequality and social justice: Nancy Fraser and Pierre Bourdieu - Terry Lovell 2008

        Book Further See: Lovell T., Nancy Fraser's integrated theory of justice: a 'sociologically rich' model for a global capitalist era?, pp. 66-87.

      8. Globalization and social exclusion: a transformationalist perspective - Ronaldo Munck c2005

        Book Further See: Chapter 2, pp. 21-39.

      9. Divided we stand: why inequality keeps rising - Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development c2011 (electronic resource)

        Book Further

      10. Changing Forms of Inequality - Charles Tilly 01/2003

        Article Further

      11. Globalization and its discontents - Joseph. E. Stiglitz 2002

        Book Further See: pp. 3-22.

      12. Globalization and transformations of social inequality - Ulrike Schuerkens 2012

        Book Further

      13. Globalization and inequalities: complexities and contested modernities - Sylvia Walby 2009

        Book Further See: Chapter 7, pp. 250-276.

  9. 8. “Doing the dirty work”: the New International Division of Reproductive Labour 27 items
    Increasingly, women from the Global South migrate and take up jobs as sex workers, domestic workers and nurses in the Global North while others work in caring professions. Such forms of migration highlight the globalisation of the caring industry and the subordination of women within this newly emergent international division of reproductive labour, described by Bridget Anderson (2000) as “the dirty work” of globalisation. Concepts such as, global care chains, transnational gender orders, transnational care regimes and queer transnationalism situate inequality analysis in the context of cross-border relations and practices. This week we take a look at how migrants often occupy highly gendered labour market niches. In this lecture, we will examine these fields, including global care chains; structural change in developed societies and gendered demand for migrant labour.
    1. Essential Reading 3 items
      1. This is My Home Now

        Audio-visual document Essential A film about migrant women in different European countries produced by the European Women’s Lobby .

    2. Further Reading 24 items
      1. Doing the dirty work?: the global politics of domestic labour - Bridget Anderson 2000

        Book Further

      2. A Very Private Business - Bridget Anderson 08/2007

        Article Further

      3. Racialized boundaries: race, nation, gender, colour and class and the anti-racist struggle - Floya Anthias, Harriet Cain, Nira Yuval-Davis 1992

        Book Further See: Chapter 4

      4. Neither “saints” nor “prostitutes” - Kimberly A Chang, Julian McAllister Groves 2000-1

        Article Further

      5. Global woman: nannies, maids and sex workers in the new economy - Barbara Ehrenreich, Arlie Russell Hochschild 2003, c2002

        Book Further

      6. Racism, sexism, power and ideology - Colette Guillaumin, Ebooks Corporation Limited 1995 (electronic resource)

        Book Further

      7. On the edge: living with global capitalism - Will Hutton, Anthony Giddens 2001, c2000

        Book Further See: Global Care Chains and Emotional Surplus Value

      8. Gender, migration, and domestic service - Janet Henshall Momsen, Ebooks Corporation Limited 1999 (electronic resource)

        Book Further

      9. Servants of globalization: women, migration and domestic work - Rhacel Salazar Parreñas 2001

        Book Further

      10. Children of global migration: transnational families and gendered woes - Rhacel Salazar Parreñas 2005

        Book Further

      11. Global Care Chains - Nicola Yeates 01/2004

        Article Further

      12. “Home” and “away” - Brenda S.A Yeoh, Shirlena Huang 2000-7

        Article Further

  10. 9. Reading week 0 items
  11. 10. Globalisation, Land Conflicts and Inequalities in Africa 18 items
    The debates over land access in Africa are often framed as a referendum on the market – that is, as a debate pitting advocates of the growth promoting individualization of property rights against those who call for protecting the livelihoods and subsistence rights of small farmers. The lecture unpacks the roots of land conflicts in Africa thorough understanding of the complex social and political contradictions, which have followed from colonial and post-independence land policies as well as from Africa’s ‘development’ and capital accumulation trajectories, especially with regard to land rights, land tenure and land use. Together, they serve to illustrate both the complexity of contemporary land conflicts in Africa, and their importance as sites of debate over the social meaning of property, and the place of the past in contemporary struggles over governance and the distribution of resources.
    1. Essential Reading 2 items
    2. Further Reading 16 items
      1. (Re)constituting Class?: Owners, Tenants and the Politics of Land Reform in Mpumalanga* - Deborah James, Alex Xola Ngonini, Geoffrey Mphahle Nkadimeng 12/2005

        Article Further

      2. Negotiating property in Africa - Kristine Juul, Christian Lund c2002

        Book Further See: Peters, P., 'The Limits of Negotiability: Security, Equity and Class Formation in Africa'.

      3. Publications | Oxfam Policy & Practice

        Webpage Further Oxfam land rights in Africa website has an excellent collection of recent papers, on policy issues and academic debates.

  12. 11. Cities and Inequalities: A Global Perspective 20 items
    54 percent of the world’s population currently lives in urban areas, reaching an expected 66 percent by 2050. These figures are coupled with a stunning 30 percent increase in urban slum population from 1990 to 2014 – reaching 880 million people. Hence, global inequalities seem to be ever more geographically significant and increasingly urban. This class will look at the urbanization of global inequalities and it will discuss the importance of looking at specific cities for understanding global processes.
    1. Essential reading 2 items
      1. Cities in a world economy - Saskia Sassen c2012

        Book Essential See: Chapter 1. Available via the Online Resouce button.

    2. Further reading 18 items
      1. Global cities - Mark Abrahamson 2004

        Book Further

      2. Planet of slums - Mike Davis 2007

        Book Further

      3. Segregation: a global history of divided cities - Carl Husemoller Nightingale 2012

        Book Further

      4. Expulsions: brutality and complexity in the global economy - Saskia Sassen 2014

        Book Further

      5. Sociology of globalization - Saskia Sassen c2007

        Book Further See: Chapter 4.

      6. The global city: New York, London, Tokyo - Saskia Sassen c2001

        Book Further See: Chapters 8-10.

      7. Class, race, and inequality in South Africa - Jeremy Seekings, Nicoli Nattrass c2005 (electronic resource)

        Book Further

      8. Urban outcasts: a comparative sociology of advanced marginality - Loïc J. D. Wacquant, Askews & Holts Library Services 2008

        Book Further

  13. Digitisations no longer required 2 items
    1. Social divisions - Geoff Payne 2013

      Book Essential See: Scott J., Class and stratification (esp. pp.39-42), available via Online Resource button.

    2. World cities beyond the West: globalization, development, and inequality - Josef Gugler 2004

      Book Essential See: Crankshaw, O., and Parnell, S., 'Johannesburg: Race, Inequality, and Urbanization'. Available via Online Resource Button.