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This list relates to the semester Semester Two 2015/16 which ended on 31/08/2016
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  1. Bibliography 76 items
    This general list of works will be useful in the preparation for the lectures, seminars and the essay. There are also annotated bibliographies on key topics.
    1.  There is no set text but it would be useful to acquire a copy of the following two items:

    2. Picts, Gaels and Scots: early historic Scotland - Sally M. Foster, Ebooks Corporation Limited 2014

      Book Suggested for Student Purchase

    3. Alba: the Gaelic kingdom of Scotland, AD 800-1124 - Stephen T. Driscoll 2002

      Book Suggested for Student Purchase

    4. Another useful introduction is:

    5. Surviving in symbols: a visit to the Pictish nation - M. O. H. Carver, Historic Scotland 2005

      Book 

    6. The historical ground is usefully surveyed by Katherine Forsyth:

    7. Scotland: a history - Dawson Books 2005

      Book  See: Forsyth, K., 'Scotland to 1100', pp. 9-37.

    8. In many respects the best bibliographic introduction to Pictish studies is:

    9. A Pictish panorama: the story of the Picts. and, A Pictish bibliography - Eric H. Nicoll, J. R. F. Burt 1995

      Book  This is an annotated bibliography. Unfortunately it is nearly 20 years old.

    10. Probably the next best bibliographic resources are:

    11. Pictish progress: new studies on northern Britain in the Middle Ages - Stephen T. Driscoll, J. Geddes, Mark A. Hall, Dawson Books 2011 (electronic resource)

      Book 

    12. Early Medieval Scotland: individuals, communities and ideas - D. V. Clarke, Alice E. Blackwell, Martin Goldberg, National Museums of Scotland 2012

      Book 

    13. General Bibliography:

    14. Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland - Society of Antiquaries of Scotland (electronic resource)

      Journal 

    15. Kings and warriors, craftsmen and priests in Northern Britain AD 550-850 - Leslie Alcock, Society of Antiquaries of Scotland 2003

      Book 

    16. The neighbours of the Picts: Angles, Britons & Scots at war and at home - Leslie Alcock, Groam House Museum Trust 1993

      Book 

    17. People and identity in Ostrogothic Italy, 489-554 - Patrick Amory 1997

      Book 

    18. Early sources of Scottish history, A.D. 500 to 1286 - Alan Orr Anderson, Marjorie Anderson 1990

      Book 

    19. Kings and kingship in early Scotland - Marjorie Ogilvie Anderson 2011

      Book  Important guide to the king-lists.

    20. Studies in insular art and archaeology - Catherine E. Karkov, Robert T. Farrell 1991

      Book  See: Coleen Batey - ‘Picts and Vikings in Caithness and Sutherland, a resume’ pp. 49-58.

    21. Irish kings and high-kings - Francis John Byrne 2001

      Book  A wide-ranging discussion of Irish kingship before the twelfth century.

    22. Portmahomack: monastery of the Picts - M. O. H. Carver c2008 (electronic resource)

      Book 

    23. Pitcarmick Excavations 1993-5 - Martin Carver, Jane Downes, John Barrett 2013

      Document 

    24. Iona: the earliest poetry of a Celtic monastery - Thomas Owen Clancy, Gilbert Markus 1995

      Book 

    25. The triumph tree: Scotland's earliest poetry, 550-1350 - Thomas Owen Clancy 1998

      Book  An anthology of poetry from Scotland before 1350.

    26. Scandinavian Scotland - B. E. Crawford 1987

      Book 

    27. The early church in Wales and the west: recent work in early Christian archaeology, history and place-names - Nancy Edwards, Alan Lane 1992

      Book  See: Wendy Davies - ‘The Myth of the Celtic Church’ pp. 12-21.

    28. Power and politics in early Medieval Britain and Ireland - Stephen T. Driscoll, Margaret R. Nieke c1988

      Book 

    29. Scottish archaeology: new perceptions - W. S. Hanson, E. A. Slater 1991

      Book  See: S. T. Driscoll, ‘The Archaeology of State Formation in Scotland’ pp. 81-111.

    30. Social identity in early Medieval Britain - William O. Frazer, Andrew Tyrrell, Dawson Books 2000 (electronic resource)

      Book  See: Driscoll, S. T., ‘Christian monumental sculpture and ethnic expression in early Scotland’

    31. The churches of North Britain in the first Viking-Age - D. N. Dumville, Whithorn Trust. Friends 1997

      Book 

    32. Scotland: the making of the Kingdom - A. A. M. Duncan 1978, c1975

      Book 

    33. The St Andrews sarcophagus: a Pictish masterpiece and its international connections - Sally M. Foster, Historic Scotland, Society of Antiquaries of Scotland c1998

      Book 

    34. The worm, the germ and the thorn: Pictish and related studies presented to Isabel Henderson - David Henry, Isabel Henderson 1997

      Book  See: Foster, S. M., 'Picts: Quite the Darkest of the Peoples of Dark Age Britain?', pp. 5-18.

    35. Pictish studies: settlement, burial and art in Dark Age Northern Britain - J. G. P. Friell, W. G. Watson 1984

      Book 

    36. Medieval Scotland: crown, lordship and community - Alexander Grant, K. J. Stringer, G. W. S. Barrow, NetLibrary, Inc c1993 (electronic resource)

      Book  See: especially A. Grant's paper on thanes and thanages.

    37. The Picts - Isabel Henderson 1967

      Book 

    38. The art of the Picts: sculpture and metalwork in early medieval Scotland - George Henderson, Isabel Henderson 2004

      Book 

    39. Iona, Kells, and Derry: the history and hagiography of the monastic familia of Columba - Máire Herbert 1996

      Book  The classic discussion of Columban churches up to the twelfth century.

    40. The worm, the germ and the thorn: Pictish and related studies presented to Isabel Henderson - David Henry, Isabel Henderson 1997

      Book  See: Hicks, C., 'Picitish Fictions', pp. 99-105. Just for fun - how the Picts are portrayed in modern fiction.

    41. Kings of Celtic Scotland - Benjamin T. Hudson 1994

      Book  A not altogether convincing attempt to construct a narrative of Scottish kings between the ninth and eleventh centuries.

    42. The Gaelic notes in the Book of Deer - Kenneth Hurlstone Jackson 1972

      Book 

    43. The worm, the germ and the thorn: Pictish and related studies presented to Isabel Henderson - David Henry, Isabel Henderson 1997

      Book  See: MacLean, D., 'Maelrubai, Applecross and the Late Pictish Contribution West of Druimalban', pp. 173-87.

    44. An historical atlas of Scotland, c. 400-c. 1600 - Peter G. B. McNeill, Ranald Nicholson 1975

      Book 

    45. Pastoral care before the parish - John Blair, Richard Sharpe 1992

      Book  See: Macquarrie, A., 'Early Christian Religious Houses in Scotland: Foundation and Function'.

    46. Who are the Scots?: and The Scottish nation - Gordon Menzies 2002

      Book 

    47. In search of Scotland - Gordon Menzies, T. C. Smout, NetLibrary, Inc c2001 (electronic resource)

      Book 

    48. Scottish place-names: their study and significance - W. F. H. Nicolaisen 2001

      Book 

    49. The worm, the germ and the thorn: Pictish and related studies presented to Isabel Henderson - David Henry, Isabel Henderson 1997

      Book  See: Ralston, I., 'Pictish Homes', pp. 35-46.

    50. Picts: an introduction to the life of the Picts and the carved stones in the care of Historic Scotland - Anna Ritchie, Historic Buildings and Monuments Directorate 1989

      Book 

    51. Govan and its early medieval sculpture - Anna Ritchie 1994

      Book 

    52. Sea change: Orkney and Northern Europe in the later Iron Age AD 300-800 - Jane Downes, Anna Ritchie 2003

      Book  See: Ritchie, A., 'Paganism Among the Picts and the Conversion of orkney', pp. 3-10.

    53. The Picts: a new look at old problems - Alan Small 1987

      Book 

    54. Warlords and holy men: Scotland, A.D. 80-1000 - Alfred P. Smyth 1984

      Book 

    55. The problem of the Picts - F. T. Wainwright 1980

      Book 

    56. The history of the Celtic place-names of Scotland - William J. Watson 2004

      Book 

    57. Sea change: Orkney and Northern Europe in the later Iron Age AD 300-800 - Jane Downes, Anna Ritchie 2003

      Book  Wood, J., 'The Orkney Hood - an Ancient Recycled Textile', pp. 171-5.

  2. Annotated bibliographies on key subjects 116 items
    1. I Art 11 items
      1. The early Christian monuments of Scotland: a classified, illustrated, descriptive list of the monuments with an analysis of their symbolism and ornamentation - J. Romilly Allen, Joseph Anderson 1903

        Book  The main achievement of J. Romilly Allen and Joseph Anderson, 'The Early Christian Monuments of Scotland' (first published in 1903; republished, with introduction by Isabel Henderson, 2 vols (Balgavies 1993)) is its classic account of Pictish sculpture. This remains an invaluable source of data, although its interpretation has inevitably come in for revision.

      2. The art of the Picts: sculpture and metalwork in early medieval Scotland - George Henderson, Isabel Henderson 2004

        Book  The classic modern discussion.

      3. Able minds and practised hands: Scotland's early medieval sculpture in the twenty-first century - Sally M. Foster, Morag Cross, Historic Scotland, Society for Medieval Archaeology c2005

        Book 

      4. Other important smaller scale studies include:

      5. The Oxford companion to Scottish history - Michael Lynch, Oxford University Press 2007 (electronic resource)

        Book  See: Forsyth, K., 'Early Christian Monuments in Scotland', pp. 426-7.

      6. The worm, the germ and the thorn: Pictish and related studies presented to Isabel Henderson - David Henry, Isabel Henderson 1997

        Book  See: Forsyth, K., 'Some thoughts on Pictish Symbols as a formal writing system'.

      7. Kings, clerics and chronicles in Scotland, 500-1297: essays in honour of Marjorie Ogilvie Anderson on the occasion of her ninetieth birthday - Simon Taylor, Marjorie Ogilvie Anderson 2000

        Book  See: Henderson, I., 'Towards Defining the Function of Sculpture in Alba: the Evidene of St. Andrews, Brechin and Rosemarkie', pp. 35-46.

      8. Pictish symbol stones: an illustrated gazetteer - Iain Fraser, Graham Ritchie, Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Scotland 1999

        Book 

      9. Sea change: Orkney and Northern Europe in the later Iron Age AD 300-800 - Jane Downes, Anna Ritchie 2003

        Book  See: Graham Ritchie, J. N., 'Pictish Art in Orkney', pp. 117-126.

      10. The broader insular context is provided, with copious illustrations, in:

    2. II Language 12 items
      1.  

        The identity of the Pictish language has been hotly contested. An essential place to start is:

      2. Other briefer discussions by the same author are:

      3. The Oxford companion to Scottish history - Michael Lynch, Oxford University Press 2007 (electronic resource)

        Book  See: Forsyth, K., 'Languages of Scotland, pre-1100', p. 377-8.

      4. An encyclopedia of the languages of Europe - Glanville Price 1998

        Book  See: Forsyth, K., 'Pictsish', pp. 332-3.

      5. A Pictish panorama: the story of the Picts. and, A Pictish bibliography - Eric H. Nicoll, J. R. F. Burt 1995

        Book  See: Forsyth, K., 'The Pictish Language', pp. 7-10.

      6. Prior to this the key contributions to the debate was:

      7. The problem of the Picts - F. T. Wainwright 1980

        Book  See: Jackson, Kenneth H., 'The Pictish Language', pp. 129-66. Available via the Online Resource button.

      8. Place-names are an important source, and the most influential scholar has been W.H.F. Nicolaisen, however his work should be used with caution and Simon Taylor is the key authority.

      9. The worm, the germ and the thorn: Pictish and related studies presented to Isabel Henderson - David Henry, Isabel Henderson 1997

        Book  See: Nicolaisen, W.H.F., 'On Pictish Rivers and their Confluences', pp. 113-8.

      10. The Picts and their place names - W. F. H. Nicolaisen, Groam House Museum Trust c1996

        Book 

      11. Sea change: Orkney and Northern Europe in the later Iron Age AD 300-800 - Jane Downes, Anna Ritchie 2003

        Book  See: Nicolaisen, W.H.F., 'Perspectives on the Pre-Norse Language(s) of Orkney', pp. 139-144.

    3. III Chronicles 16 items
      1. There is only one surviving Scottish chronicle from our period: the 'Chronicle of the Kings of Alba' (otherwise known as the 'Scottish chronicle in the Poppleton manuscript'). It will be distributed in translation. There is no entirely satisfactory published discussion of how and when it was written. A useful article, however, is:

      2.  

        For the possibility of a 'Dunkeld chronicle' from the mid-ninth to the mid-tenth century, see:

      3. Spes Scotorum =: Hope of Scots : Saint Columba, Iona and Scotland - Dauvit Broun, Thomas Owen Clancy 1999

        Book  See: Broun, D., 'Dunkeld and the Origin of Scottish Identity'.

      4. The main chronicle-source for Scottish history (especially from ca 970 to the early 12th century) are Irish chronicles.  The two most important published texts are:

      5. The Annals of Ulster (to A.D. 1131) - Seán Mac Airt, Gearóid Mac Niocaill 1983-

        Book 

      6. The annals of Tigernach - Whitley Stokes, Tigernach 1993

        Book  The ‘Annals of Tigernach’ are particularly difficult to read, I am afraid, and are only partially translated.

      7. The most accessible compendium of annalistic entries in translation (although only those relating to Scotland) is in:  

      8. Early sources of Scottish history, A.D. 500 to 1286 - Alan Orr Anderson, Marjorie Anderson 1990

        Book  This is an invaluable work of reference. It is important, however, to keep your eye on the footnotes to see if an entry is found in more than one chronicle, and whether it is recorded differently. Also the work is near 100 years old, so scholarship in many places has moved on.

      9. A very informative and readable discussions of Irish chronicles as a source is:

      10. The medieval Irish annals - Gearóid Mac Niocaill, Dublin Historical Association 1975

        Book  Another informative survey.

      11. A much more difficult and technical discussion of Irish chronicles as a source is:

      12. There are also important English chronicles, notably the Anglo-Saxon chronicle and the north-English chronicle (written up in the early twelfth century as Simeon of Durham's Historia Regum). Their information is usefully assembled in translation in:

    4. IV King-lists and politics 11 items
      1. Discussions of king-lists tend to be rather dense and difficult to read! An introduction to what Pictish king-lists there are is in:

      2. Kings and kingship in early Scotland - Marjorie Ogilvie Anderson 2011

        Book 

      3. Some idea of the difficulties of using king-lists as a source for political history can be gained by looking at:

      4. The St Andrews sarcophagus: a Pictish masterpiece and its international connections - Sally M. Foster, Historic Scotland, Society of Antiquaries of Scotland c1998

        Book  See: Broun, D., 'Pictish kings 761-839: integration with Dál Riata or separate development?', pp. 71-83.

      5. King-lists are an important source for basic political ideas and identity. In general, see:

      6. Early medieval kingship - P. H. Sawyer, Ian N. Wood 1977

        Book  See: Dumville, D.M., 'Kingship, Genealogies and Regnal Lists', pp. 72-104.

      7. For discussion of Pictish king-lists in this light, see:

      8. A Pictish panorama: the story of the Picts. and, A Pictish bibliography - Eric H. Nicoll, J. R. F. Burt 1995

        Book  See: Brief article by Broun, D.

      9. Scottish independence and the idea of Britain: from the Picts to Alexander III - Dauvit Broun, Dawson Books 2007 (electronic resource)

        Book  See: Chapter 3.

      10. Another aspect of Pictish kingship for which the king-lists have been used as evidence is the custom of matrilinear succession. The essential guide to this difficult issue is:

    5. V Social Structure: law and custom 21 items
      1. Nothing from Scotland survives earlier than the thirteenth century. The best Scottish source are property records written into the Book of Deer 1130x50. These are discussed fully in Kenneth Jackson, The Gaelic Notes in the Book of Deer (1972), where it is suggested that some features of society in these records are Pictish in origin.

      2. The Gaelic notes in the Book of Deer - Kenneth Hurlstone Jackson 1972

        Book 

      3. The only other way to make progress is by looking at Irish and Welsh law and pre-Conquest social structure in England, and comparing these with Scottish social structure found charters of the 12th and 13th centuries (or even later). An important discussion is:

      4. For an excellent and very readable introduction to early Irish law, see:

      5. A guide to early Irish law - Fergus Kelly 1988

        Book  See: Especially 26ff.

      6. Another useful introduction is:

      7. Early Christian Ireland: introduction to the sources - Kathleen Hughes 1972

        Book  See: pp. 43-65. Another useful introduction.

      8. For Welsh law, particularly as it applies to social structure, see:

      9. Settlement and society in Wales - D. Huw Owen c1989

        Book  See: Jones, G.R.J., 'The Dark Ages;, pp. 177-98.

      10. Medieval settlement: continuity and change - P. H. Sawyer 1976

        Book  See: Jones, G.R.J., 'Multiple Estates and Early Settlements', pp. 9-34.

      11. For the Scottish evidence, particularly compared with pre-Conquest England, see:

      12. The kingdom of the Scots: government, Church and society from the eleventh to the fourteenth century - G. W. S. Barrow 2003

        Book  See: Chapter 1, 'Pre-Feudal Scotland: Shires and Thanes'.

      13. The most important discussion of kinship in early medieval Celtic societies is:

      14. Early Irish and Welsh kinship - T. M. Charles-Edwards, Oxford University Press 1993 (electronic resource)

        Book 

      15. Early medieval property-records are discussed in:

      16. The charters of Gaelic Scotland and Ireland in the early and central Middle Ages - Dauvit Broun, University of Cambridge. Department of Anglo-Saxon, Norse & Celtic 1995

        Book 

      17. Ireland in early mediaeval Europe: studies in memory of Kathleen Hughes - Rosamond McKitterick, D. N. Dumville, Kathleen Hughes, Dorothy Whitelock 1982

        Book  See: Davies, W., 'The Latin Charter-Tradition in Western Britain, Brittany and Ireland in the Early Medieval Period'.

      18. Iona, Kells, and Derry: the history and hagiography of the monastic familia of Columba - Máire Herbert 1996

        Book  See: pp. 98-108.

      19. The Book of Kells: proceedings of a conference at Trinity College Dublin, 6-9 September 1992 - Felicity O'Mahony, Trinity College (Dublin, Ireland) 1994

        Book  See: Herbert, Maire, 'Charter Material from Kells', pp. 60-77.

      20. The Gaelic notes in the Book of Deer - Kenneth Hurlstone Jackson 1972

        Book  See: pp. 7-16, 85-124.

    6. VI Social Structure: archaeology 6 items
      1. This is a difficult area, where there is much debate and little certainty as the exchange in the Journal of Historical Geography (see the Jones article listed below) makes plain. It draws upon geographical approaches to the landscape including place-names, later historical sources and field archaeology.

      2. Scottish power centres: from the early Middle Ages to the twentieth century - Sally M. Foster, Allan I. Macinnes, Ranald MacInnes 1998

        Book  See: Driscoll, S.T., 'Formalising the Mechanisms of State Power: Early Scottish Lordship from the Ninth to the Thirteenth Centuries', pp. 33-58.

      3. Scottish archaeology: new perceptions - W. S. Hanson, E. A. Slater 1991

        Book  See: Driscoll, S.T., 'The Archaeology of State Formation in Scotland', pp. 81-111.

      4. Multiple estates perceived - Jones, Glanville R J Oct 1, 1985

        Article 

    7. VII Ethnicity 16 items
      1. This is a real growth area in historical and social research, but not much has penetrated into the early middle ages yet. Important examples of what can be done are:

      2. People and identity in Ostrogothic Italy, 489-554 - Patrick Amory 1997

        Book  See: pp. 13-39, 326-7.

      3. Social identity in early Medieval Britain - William O. Frazer, Andrew Tyrrell, Dawson Books 2000 (electronic resource)

        Book  See: Driscoll, S.T., 'Christian Monumental Sculpture and Ethnic Expression in Early Scotland'.

      4. See also:

      5. The Anglo-Saxons from the migration period to the eighth century: an ethnographic perspective - John Hines, Center for Interdisciplinary Research on Social Stress c1997

        Book  See: Pohl, W., 'Ehtnic Names and Identities', pp. 7-25 (and discussion at 32-40).

      6. For a later period, see:

      7. The making of Europe: conquest, colonization and cultural change 950-1350 - Robert Bartlett 1994, c1993

        Book 

      8. For discussions in other disciplines, it is useful to dip into a couple of these:

      9. Ethnic groups and boundaries: the social organization of culture difference - Fredrik Barth, Universitetet i Bergen 1998, c1969

        Book  See: Introduction.

      10. The symbolic construction of community - Anthony P. Cohen, Ebooks Corporation Limited 1985 (electronic resource)

        Book 

      11. Ethnography and the historical imagination - John L. Comaroff, Jean Comaroff 1992

        Book  See: especially pp. 49-67.

      12. The ethnic origins of nations - Anthony D. Smith c1988

        Book 

      13. Companion encyclopedia of anthropology - Tim Ingold, MyiLibrary 2002 (electronic resource)

        Book  See: Smith, A.D., 'The Politics of Culture: Ethnicity and Nationalism', pp. 706-33.

    8. VIII The formation of Alba 9 items
      1. There are widely differing explanations of how the Picts declined and Alba came into being. The most recent statements of different views are:

      2. Scottish independence and the idea of Britain: from the Picts to Alexander III - Dauvit Broun, Dawson Books 2007 (electronic resource)

        Book  See: Chapter 3.

      3. Exile and homecoming: papers from the fifth Australian Conference of Celtic Studies, University of Sydney, July 2004 - Pamela O'Neill, Australian Conference of Celtic Studies, University of Sydney. Celtic Studies Foundation 2005

        Book  See: Broun, D., 'Alba: Pictish Homeland or Irish Offshoot?' Available via the Online Resource button.

      4. See also:

      5. Spes Scotorum =: Hope of Scots : Saint Columba, Iona and Scotland - Dauvit Broun, Thomas Owen Clancy 1999

        Book  See: Broun, D., 'Dunkeld and the Origins of Scottish Identity'.

      6. The churches of North Britain in the first Viking-Age - D. N. Dumville, Whithorn Trust. Friends 1997

        Book 

      7. Scotland in dark age Britain: the proceedings of a day conference held on 18 February 1995 - B. E. Crawford 1996

        Book  See: Wormald, P., 'The Emergence of the Regnum Scottorum: A Carolingian Hegemony?', pp. 131-60. Available via the Online Resource button.

    9. IX Pictish-Norse Interface 14 items
      1. Sea change: Orkney and Northern Europe in the later Iron Age AD 300-800 - Jane Downes, Anna Ritchie 2003

        Book  See: Brundle, A., 'Buckquoy Revisited', pp. 95-104. Available via the Online Resource button.

      2. Earl & Mormaer: Norse-Pictish relationships in Northern Scotland - B. E. Crawford, Groam House Museum Trust c1995

        Book 

      3. Scandinavian Scotland - B. E. Crawford 1987

        Book 

      4. Scandinavian settlement in northern Britain: thirteen studies of place-names in their historical context - B. E. Crawford 1995

        Book  See: Especially chapters by Oram, Taylor, and Waugh.

      5. The churches of North Britain in the first Viking-Age - D. N. Dumville, Whithorn Trust. Friends 1997

        Book 

      6. Ireland and Scandinavia in the early Viking age - Howard B. Clarke, Máire Ní Mhaonaigh, Raghnall Ó Floinn c1998

        Book  See: Morris, C.D., 'Raiders, Traders and Settlers: the Early Viking Age in Scotland', pp. 73-103.

      7. The Oxford illustrated history of the Vikings - P. H. Sawyer 1997

        Book 

      8. Sea change: Orkney and Northern Europe in the later Iron Age AD 300-800 - Jane Downes, Anna Ritchie 2003

        Book  See: Smith, B., Not Welcome at All: Vikings and the Native Population in Orkney and Shetland', pp. 145-50.

      9. The Orkneyinga saga - Alexander Burt Taylor 1938

        Book 

  3. Digitised Readings 6 items
    1. Sea change: Orkney and Northern Europe in the later Iron Age AD 300-800 - Jane Downes, Anna Ritchie 2003

      Book  See: Brundle A., Lorimer D. H., Ritchie A. - 'Buckquoy revisited' - pp. 95-104. Available via Online Resource button.

    2. Early Medieval Scotland: individuals, communities and ideas - D. V. Clarke, Alice E. Blackwell, Martin Goldberg, National Museums of Scotland 2012

      Book  See: Goldberg, M., 'Ideas and Ideology' - pp. 140-203. Available via Online Resource button.

    3. The problem of the Picts - F. T. Wainwright 1980

      Book  See: Jackson K. -'The Pictish language' - (chapter 6), pp. 129-160. Available via Online Resource button.

    4. Northern studies - Scottish Society for Northern Studies 1973-

      Journal  See: Smith B. -'The Picts and the martyrs, or did the vikings kill the native population of Orkney and Shetland?'- 2001, vol. 36, pp. 7-32. Available via Online Resource button.

    5. Scotland in dark age Britain: the proceedings of a day conference held on 18 February 1995 - B. E. Crawford 1996

      Book  See: See: Wormald, P., 'The Emergence of the Regnum Scottorum: A Carolingian Hegemony?', pp. 131-60. Available via the Online Resource button.

    6. Exile and homecoming: papers from the fifth Australian Conference of Celtic Studies, University of Sydney, July 2004 - Pamela O'Neill, Australian Conference of Celtic Studies, University of Sydney. Celtic Studies Foundation 2005

      Book  See: Broun, D., 'Alba: Pictish Homeland or Irish Offshoot?' Available via the Online Resource button.