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  1. PLEASE NOTE: LECTURE AND SEMINAR READINGS ARE LISTED AT THE BOTTOM OF THE PAGE, AFTER THE ESSAY READINGS.

  2. Europe Rising - Essays 1 item
    1. Essay Questions 2018-19

      You may choose one of the following sixteen essay questions for your 1,500 word (inclusive of footnotes BUT NOT bibliography) essay.

      Essays should develop a clearly structured argument supported with evidence from secondary works and where possible, primary sources. Where relevant, an awareness of historiographical debate on the question should be demonstrated.  

       

      Clicking on most items in this reading list will take you to an electronic version (if available as an e-book or e-article through the library catalogue, GUID is required to access ) or will show you their current availability in the library. 

      Items marked AVAILABLE THROUGH LINK ON COURSE MOODLE have been provided as scans on the library website.   You actually have two ways of accessing these. The first is through the Course Moodle link.

      You can  ALSO  access a list of these readings by searching for in the 'Course Materials' section of the GUL catalogue under lecturer names – Airlie, Cohn, Marritt, McClure, Roach, Schenk, Strickland -  or under the course title, History 1b Europe Rising and the same password when prompted.  The list gives digitised materials  and list of some (but not all) items on Short Loan.  Use the button AUTHOR to sort into alphabetical order  and FORMAT to put the Short Loan items to the end of the list.  (All Short Loan items are indicated on GUL catalogue anyhow - this is not a definitive list.)

       

      You must complete an essay plan for your tutorial in week 7. A blank essay plan  form can be found on Moodle. Essays are due to be submitted electronically in week 8 (week beginning February 26th). You should hand in ONE copy with a signed copy of the Declaration of Originality (on Moodle) via the on-line submission box. Be sure to review the 'Essay Checklist', available on Moodle, before you hand in your essay.

  3. 1. How far did the Arab conquests bring about radical/sweeping changes to/in the conquered societies? 12 items
    1. Early medieval Europe: 300-1000 - Roger Collins 1999

      Book  Chapter 9: ‘Constantinople, Persia and the Arabs’, pp. 133-150.

    2. Late antiquity: a guide to the postclassical world - G. W. Bowersock, Peter Robert Lamont Brown, Oleg Grabar 1999

      Book  See: Chapter: H. Kennedy ‘Islam’. Also available in G.W. Bowersock, P. Brown and O. Grabar, (eds.) 'Interpreting Late Antiquity. Essays on the Post Classical World'. (2001). Available via the Online Resource button.

    3. Interpreting late antiquity: essays on the postclassical world - G. W. Bowersock, Peter Robert Lamont Brown, Oleg Grabar c2001

      Book  Chapter: H. Kennedy ‘Islam’. Also available in G.W. Bowersock, P. Brown and O. Grabar, 'Late Antiquity. A Guide to the Postclassical World'. (1999) Digitised chapter available under entry for G.W. Bowersock, P. Brown and O. Grabar, 'Late Antiquity. A Guide to the Postclassical World'.

    4. The Oxford history of Byzantium - Cyril A. Mango 2002

      Book  Chapter: R. Hoyland, ‘The Rise of Islam’

    5. Empires of faith: the fall of Rome to the rise of Islam, 500-700 - Peter Sarris 2011 (electronic resource)

      Book  Chapter 7 at parts 7.8, 7.9 and 7.10

    6. The rise of Western Christendom: triumph and diversity, AD 200-1000 - Peter Robert Lamont Brown 2003

      Book  Chapter 12 (especially pp. 285-94), and Chapter 13. Note that there is now a 2013 'tenth anniversary edition' available electronically, see next item. Page numbers may be different from those indicated here...

    7. The new Cambridge medieval history - McKitterick, Rosamond 1995-2005

      Book  See: C. Hillenbrand, ‘Muhammad and the rise of Islam’ (Chapter 12) in Volume 1 (c.500-c.700). Volume 1 available as an e-book via the Online Resource button.

    8. The inheritance of Rome: a history of Europe from 400 to 1000 - Chris Wickham 2009

      Book  Chapter 12. pp. 279-97

    9. The seventh century in the West-Syrian chronicles - Andrew Palmer, Robert G. Hoyland, Sebastian P. Brock 1993 (electronic resource)

      Book  See: pp. 53 - 70. Source material from this period is tricky to use, but it is worth taking a look at The Chronicle of Zuqnin (AD 775) on pp. 53 - 70; dates are counted by the Seleucid era, which starts in 312 BCE, i.e., subtract 312 from the dates in the Chronicle and you will have a good idea of where you are.

  4. 2. How far was there anything more to Charlemagne's kingship than plunder and conquest? 18 items
    1. Early medieval Europe: 300-1000 - Roger Collins 2010

      Book  See: Chapter 16, "Charlemagne", pp. 280 -299 (available via the Online Resource button); Chapter 17, "The Carolingian regime", pp. 300 - 317.

    2. Charlemagne - Matthias Becher c2003

      Book 

    3. Introduction to early medieval Western Europe, 300-900: the sword, the plough and the book - Matthew Innes 2007

      Book  See: Chapter 9, available via the Online Resource button. (NB. Chapter 10 also worth a quick look).

    4. The inheritance of Rome: a history of Europe from 400 to 1000 - Chris Wickham 2009

      Book  See: Chapter 16, especially pages 375-92. Available via the Online Resource button.

    5. Early medieval Europe 300-1050: the birth of western society - D. W. Rollason 2012 (electronic resource)

      Book  Chapters 4, 5 and 6 (pp.67-141)

    6. Charlemagne - Roger Collins 1998

      Book 

    7. The age of Charlemagne - Donald A. Bullough c1965

      Book 

    8. Charlemagne: empire and society - Joanna Story 2005

      Book 

    9. Medieval warfare: a history - Maurice Hugh Keen 1999 (electronic resource)

      Book  Chapter 2: ‘Carolingian and Ottonian Warfare’, by T. Reuter

    10. Transactions of the Royal Historical Society - Royal Historical Society (Great Britain), Cambridge University Press 1872- (electronic resource)

      Journal  Chapter: T. Reuter, ‘Plunder and Tribute in the Carolingian Empire’, 5th series, vol. 35 (1985). Also available in T. Reuter, 'Medieval Polities and Modern Mentalities (2006), ch.13.

    11. Medieval Polities and Modern Mentalities - Timothy Reuter, Janet L. Nelson 2006 (electronic resource)

      Book  Chapter 13: T. Reuter, ‘Plunder and Tribute in the Carolingian Empire’. Also available in Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, 5th series, Vol. 35 (1985)

    12. A companion to the medieval world - Carol Lansing, Edward D. English 2009 (electronic resource)

      Book  Chapter: H. Hummer, ‘Politics and Power’ (pp. 36-55) - rather general, but helpful survey.

    13. Charlemagne and his successors were more than simply warriors; Story's collection above covers many aspects of the reign, but for wider perspectives in addition to the titles above, see:

    14. The rise of Western Christendom: triumph and diversity AD 200-1000 - Brown, Peter, Dawson Books 2013 (electronic resource)

      Book  Chapters 18 and 19: very vivid and readable

    15. Carolingian culture: emulation and innovation - Rosamond McKitterick 1994

      Book  Chapter: J. Nelson, ‘Kingship and Empire in the Carolingian World’

    16. Primary Sources Online and in Print: 3 items
      1. If you want to look at source material, try sampling Einhard's Life of Charlemagne, written in the 820s, after Charlemagne's death, by a trusted courtier; available in many translations: the most recent is by David Ganz, Einhard and Notker the Stammerer: Two Lives of Charlemagne (Notker's Life is not helpful here):

      2. Two lives of Charlemagne - Einhard, Notker, David Ganz c2008

        Book 

  5. 3. How great a threat did Viking incursions pose in Britain and Frankia in the ninth and tenth centuries, and why did rulers find it so difficult to combat them effectively? 11 items
    1. Early medieval Europe: 300-1000 - Roger Collins 1999

      Book 

    2. The Oxford illustrated history of the Vikings - P. H. Sawyer 1997

      Book  See: Nelson, J. L., The Frankish Empire (chapter 2), pp. 19--47. Available via the Online Resource button.

    3. The Vikings - Else Roesdahl 1998

      Book  See: pp. 195-209 The mainland of Western Europe. Available via the Online Resource button.

    4. Vikings in history - Donald F. Logan 2005

      Book  Especially Chapter 5.

    5. Introduction to early medieval Western Europe, 300-900: the sword, the plough and the book - Matthew Innes 2007

      Book  Use index for ‘Vikings’.

    6. Empires and barbarians: migrations, development and the birth of Europe - P. J. Heather 2009

      Book  Chapter 9 ‘Viking Diasporas,' available via the Online Resource button; perhaps not introductory reading, but it is a comprehensive survey (includes the Rus) and does look at the topic of migration.

    7. The Viking world - Stefan Brink, Neil S. Price 2008 (electronic resource)

      Book  See Chapter 14 by G. Williams; relevant parts of Part II are worth sampling.

    8. Viking empires - Angelo Forte, Richard D. Oram, Frederik Pedersen 2005

      Book 

    9. And see also the bibliography for the Vikings seminar.

    10. Vikings: life and legend - British Museum 2014

      Book  See: especially G. Williams, "Warfare and military expansion", pp. 76 - 121.

  6. 4. How fair/accurate is it to characterise relations between Byzantium and the west in the period c.700-c.1000 as a cold war between fundamentally different cultures? 12 items
    1. Byzantium: the bridge from antiquity to the Middle Ages - Michael Angold 2001

      Book  See in particular Chapter 6 ‘Byzantium and the West’: clear and readable. Available via the Online Resource button.

    2. Communications and power in medieval Europe: the Carolingian and Ottonian centuries - Karl J. Leyser, Timothy Reuter 1994 (electronic resource)

      Book  Chapter: K. Leyser, ‘Ends and Means in Liudprand of Cremona’, pp. 125-42; puts Liudprand’s disastrous visit to tenth-century Constantinople (primary sources for this below) in context.

    3. Medieval Germany and its neighbours, 900-1250 - Karl J. Leyser 1982

      Book  Chapter: K. Leyser, ‘The Tenth Century in Byzantine-Western Relationships’. Also in D. Baker, ed., The Relations Between East and West in the Middle Ages (1973).

    4. Relations between East and West in the Middle Ages - Derek Baker 1973 (electronic resource)

      Book  Chapter: K. Leyser, ‘The Tenth Century in Byzantine-Western Relationships’. Also in K. Leyser, Medieval Germany and Its Neighbours 900-1250 (1982).

    5. Byzantium in the ninth century: dead or alive? : papers from the thirtieth Spring Symposium of Byzantine studies, Birmingham, March 1996 - Leslie Brubaker c1998

      Book  Chapter: C. Wickham, ‘Ninth-century Byzantium through Western Eyes’. Available via the Online Resource button.

    6. The Cambridge history of the Byzantine Empire c. 500-1492 - Jonathan Shepard 2008

      Book  Chapter: M. McCormick, ‘Western Approaches (700-900)’

    7. The Cambridge history of the Byzantine Empire c. 500-1492 - Jonathan Shepard 2008

      Book  Chapter: J. Shepard, ‘Western Approaches (900-1025)’

    8. The new Cambridge medieval history - McKitterick, Rosamond 1995-2005

      Book  Chapter: M. McCormick, ‘Byzantium and the West 700-900’ in Volume 2 (c.700-c.900). Volume 2 available as an e-book via the Online Resource button.

    9. The new Cambridge medieval history - McKitterick, Rosamond 1995-2005

      Book  J. Shepard, ‘Byzantium and the West’, in T. Reuter, Volume 3 (c.900-c.1024). Volume 3 available as an e-book via the Online Resource button.

    10. Early medieval Europe: 300-1000 - Roger Collins 2010

      Book  See: Chapter 21, "The Empire revived, 875 - 1002".

    11. Primary Source Online and in Print: 2 items
      1. The complete works of Liudprand of Cremona - Liudprand, Paolo Squatriti c2007

        Book  pp. 238-82for Liudprand's entertainingly acidic account of his dieastrous Constantinople visit.

  7. 5. Compare and contrast Cluniac and Cistercian monasticism 19 items
    1. The Cistercians: ideals and reality - Louis Julius Lekai c1977

      Book 

    2. The Benedictines in the Middle Ages - James G. Clark 2011

      Book 

    3. Cluny from the tenth to the twelfth centuries: further studies - Giles Constable c2000

      Book  Chapter 1: Constable, G. ‘Cluny in the monastic world of the tenth century’. Available via the Online Resource button.

    4. Medieval monasticism: forms of religious life in Western Europe in the Middle Ages - C. H. Lawrence 2001

      Book  Chapter 6: ‘ The Age of Cluny’ pp. 83-106. See also Chapters 5 and 7.

    5. To be the neighbor of Saint Peter: the social meaning of Cluny's property - Barbara H. Rosenwein c1989

      Book  See: Chapter 4: ‘Landed Property and the Gift Economy’, pp. 109-43. See also Chapter 1 and Conclusion. Chapter 4 available via Online Resource Button.

    6. Debating the Middle Ages: issues and readings - Lester K. Little, Barbara H. Rosenwein 1998

      Book  Chapter: Iogna-Prat, D. ‘The Dead in the Celestial Bookkeeping of the Cluniac Monks Around the Year 1000’, pp. 340-62. Available via the Online Resource button.

    7. The Cambridge History of Christianity: Volume 3: Early Medieval Christianities, c.600-c.1100 2008

      Book  Chapter: Angenendt, A. ‘Sacrifice, gifts and prayers in Latin Christianity’, pp. 453-71.

    8. The birth of purgatory - Jacques Le Goff 1984

      Book  Chapter: ‘The Early Middle Ages: Doctrinal Stagnation and the Riot of Imagination’, pp 96-127 (see especially pp 124-7). Available via the Online Resource button.

    9. Monastic life at Cluny: 910-1157 - Joan Evans 1931

      Book  Chapter 2, pp. 10-46, especially pp 10-37. Available via the Online Resource button.

    10. Primary Source Online: 7 items
      1. For Early Monasticism, including the earliest ascetics, the Rule of St Benedict and Celtic Monasticism see: 

      2. For Cluny and for the New Orders of the Eleventh and Twelfth Centuries see: 

      3. Foundation Charter of the Monastery of Cluny (909/10)

        Webpage  The first document for Cluny setting out the wishes of its lay patron and his provisions for its support and running.

  8. 6. Should the conquest of England from 1066 be attributed to Norman strength or Anglo-Saxon weakness? 27 items
    1. Normandy before 1066 - David Bates 1982

      Book 

    2. Norman rule in Normandy, 911-1144 - M. Hagger 2017

      Book 

    3. Edward the Confessor - Frank Barlow 1970

      Book 

    4. Edward the Confessor - Frank Barlow 1997

      Book 

    5. The feudal kingdom of England, 1042-1216 - Frank Barlow 1999

      Book 

    6. William: king and conqueror - M. Hagger 2012

      Book 

    7. William the Conqueror - David Bates c1989

      Book 

    8. The English and the Norman Conquest - Ann Williams 1995

      Book 

    9. England and Normandy in the Middle Ages - David Bates, Anne Curry c1994

      Book  Chapter: Bates, D. ‘The Rise and Fall of Normandy c. 911-1204’ - electronic version also available, see next item

    10. England and Normandy in the Middle Ages - Bates, David, Curry, Anne, Dawson Books c1994 (electronic resource)

      Book  Chapter: Bates, D. ‘The Rise and Fall of Normandy c. 911-1204’

    11. Campaigns of the Norman conquest - Bennett, Matthew 2001

      Book 

    12. Proceedings of the Battle Conference on Anglo-Norman studies, 1, 1978 - R. Allen Brown, Battle Conference on Anglo-Norman Studies 1979

      Book  Chapter: Brooks, N.P. ‘The Authority and Interpretation of the Bayeux Tapestry'. Available via the Online Resource button.

    13. The debate on the Norman Conquest - Marjorie Chibnall 1999

      Book 

    14. The Normans: the history of a dynasty - David Crouch 2002

      Book 

    15. Edward the Confessor: the man and the legend - Richard Mortimer 2009

      Book 

    16. The Norman Empire - John Le Patourel 1976

      Book 

    17. The Normans in Britain - David Walker 1995

      Book 

    18. Primary Sources Online 5 items
      1. The Normans - R. A. Brown 1994

        Book 

      2. English historical documents: Vol. 2: 1042-1189 - David C. Douglas, George William Greenaway 1981 (electronic resource)

        Book 

      3. The Normans in Europe - Elisabeth Maria Cornelia van Houts 2000 (electronic resource)

        Book 

      4. The Bayeux Tapestry – there are many editions of the tapestry both online and in the library. For fun, and the University has no responsibility for this site, you can create your own at:

  9. 7. Is the Norman conquest and settlement in southern Italy and Sicily better understood as a process of adaptation and assimilation, or as a colonial imposition? 17 items
    1. Italy in the central Middle Ages: 1000-1300 - David Abulafia 2004

      Book 

    2. Roger II of Sicily: a ruler between East and West - Hubert Houben 2002

      Book 

    3. Anglo-Norman studies: 27: Proceedings of the Battle Conference 2004 - John Gillingham, Battle Conference on Anglo-Norman Studies 2005

      Book  Chapter: Johnson, E. 'Normandy and Norman Identity in Southern Italian Chronicles', pp 85-100.

    4. The society of Norman Italy - G. A. Loud, A. Metcalfe 2002 (electronic resource)

      Book 

    5. The Latin Church in Norman Italy - G. A. Loud 2007

      Book 

    6. The new Cambridge medieval history - McKitterick, Rosamond 1995-2005

      Book  Chapter: Loud, G.A. ‘Southern Italy in the Eleventh Century’ in Volume 4 (c. 1024-1198) Part 2, pp 94-119.

    7. The new Cambridge medieval history - McKitterick, Rosamond 1995-2005

      Book  Chapter: Loud, G.A. ‘Norman Sicily in the Twelfth Century’ in Volume 4 (c. 1024-1198) Part 2, pp 424-72.

    8. The Norman kingdom of Sicily - Donald Matthew 1992

      Book  Chapter 2,' The Establishment of the Kingdom'. Available via the Online Resource button.

    9. Primary Sources Online and in Print: 5 items
      1. The Normans in Europe - Elisabeth Maria Cornelia van Houts 2000 (electronic resource)

        Book 

      2. The history of the Normans - Amato, Prescott N. Dunbar, G. A. Loud 2004

        Book 

  10. 8. Why did Pope Urban II preach the First Crusade in November 1095? 27 items
    1. Essential Reading 8 items
      1. The First Crusade: the call from the East - Peter Frankopan 2012

        Book 

      2. Pope Urban II’ preaching of the First Crusade - H. E. J. Cowdrey 06/1970

        Article  Reproduced in idem 'Popes, Monks and Crusaders' (Hambledon 1986), XVI, & in T. Madden (ed.), The Crusades: Essential Readings (Oxford 2002), pp. 17-29.

      3. The origin of the idea of crusade - Carl Erdmann, American Council of Learned Societies 1977 (electronic resource)

        Book 

      4. The First Crusade: origins and impact - Jonathan Phillips, University of London 1997

        Book  Chapter: France, J. ‘Patronage and the appeal of the First Crusade’, pp. 1-20. Available via the Online Resource button.

      5. The First Crusade and the idea of crusading - Jonathan Simon Christopher Riley-Smith 1986 (electronic resource)

        Book 

      6. The Crusades and the expansion of Catholic Christendom, 1000-1714 - John France 2005

        Book  See: Chapter 2, "The Papal Monarchy and the Invention of the Crusades", pp. 23-63.

    2. Further Reading 13 items
      1. General 7 items
        1. God's war: a new history of the Crusades - Christopher Tyerman 2006

          Book  Chapter 1 (‘The Origins of Christian Holy War’), Chapter 2 (‘The Summons to Jerusalem’), 3 (‘The March to Constantinople’), and Chapter 4 (‘The Road to the Holy Sepulchre’) [This is the best introduction to the topic by far]

        2. The first crusade: a new history - Thomas S. Asbridge 2005

          Book 

        3. The papal monarchy: the Western church from 1050 to 1250 - Colin Morris, Oxford University Press 04/07/1991 (electronic resource)

          Book  See: Chapter 6, "Greeks and Saracens"

      2. Specific 6 items
        1. The Crusades: the essential readings - Thomas F. Madden 2002

          Book  Chapter: Cowdrey, H.E.J. ‘Pope Urban II’ preaching of the First Crusade’, pp 17-29

        2. Popes, monks and crusaders - H. E. J. Cowdrey 1984

          Book  Chapter: Cowdrey, H.E.J. ‘Pope Urban II’ preaching of the First Crusade’

        3. The Holy Land, holy lands, and Christian history: papers read at the 1998 Summer Meeting and the 1999 Winter Meeting of the Ecclesiastical History Society - R. N. Swanson, Ecclesiastical History Society 2000

          Book  Chapter: Morris, C. ‘Memorials of the holy places and blessings from the east: devotion to Jerusalem before the crusades’, pp. 90-109. Available via the Online Resource button.

        4. The first crusaders, 1095-1131 - Jonathan Simon Christopher Riley-Smith 1997

          Book 

        5. Pope Urban II's Council of Piacenza - Robert Somerville, Oxford University Press 2011 (electronic resource)

          Book 

    3. Online Source Collections 1 item
      1. Urban II’ speech at Clermont 1 item
    4. Printed Sources 5 items
      There are many printed sources available for the First Crusade: here is a guide to what is available, where to find them, and some information on the outlook of their writers:
      1. Collections 5 items
        1. Translations and reprints from the original sources of European history - University of Pennsylvania 1897-1900

          Book  Chapter: Munro, D.C. "Urban and the Crusaders", Vol 1:2. NB. Special Collections item - reference only. Online version also available.

        2. Translations and reprints from the original sources of European history - University of Pennsylvania 1895

          Book  Chapter: Munro, D.C. "Urban and the Crusaders". Online version.

        3. The crusades: idea and reality, 1095-1274 - Louise Riley-Smith, Jonathan Simon Christopher Riley-Smith 1981

          Book 

        4. Chronicles of the First Crusade 1096-1099 - Tyerman, Christopher 2012, c2004

          Book 

  11. 9. To what extent was Fulcher of Chartres correct in his observation that the Franks living in the crusader states in the 1120s had become "Orientals"? 12 items
    1. Essential Reading 9 items
      As a general introduction to the topic you should consult at least two of the following standard texts:
      1. The crusader states - Malcolm Barber c2012 (electronic resource)

        Book  Especially Chapter 3 (‘The First Settlers’), Chapter 5 (‘The Military, Institutional and Ecclesiastical Framework’), Chapter 6 (‘Antioch and Jerusalem’) and Chapter 9 (‘The Frankish Imprint’)

      2. Frankish rural settlement in the Latin kingdom of Jerusalem - Roni Ellenblum 2002, c1998

        Book  See: Chapter 1.

      3. The new Cambridge medieval history - McKitterick, Rosamond 1995-2005

        Book  See: Mayer, D.H.E. ‘The Latin East, 1098-1205’, Volume 4.2 (c.1024-c.1198), pp. 644-74. Volume 4.2 available as an e-book via the Online Resource button.

      4. The new Cambridge medieval history - Rosamond McKitterick 1995-2005

        Book  See: Edbury, P.W. ‘The crusader states, c.1198-c.1300’, Volume 5 (c.1198-c.1300), pp. 590-606. Volume 5 available as an e-book via the Online Resource button.

      5. God's war: a new history of the Crusades - Christopher Tyerman 2006

        Book  Chapter 5 (‘The Foundations of Christian Outremer’); Chapter 6 (‘The Latin States’); Chapter 7 (‘East is East and East is West: Outremer in the Twelfth Century’) and Chapter 22 (‘Survival and Decline: the Frankish Holy Land in the Thirteenth Century’). Available via the Online Resource button

      6. Detailed essential information can be found in the following articles and book chapters: 4 items
        1. Crusader institutions - Joshua Prawer 1980

          Book  See: Chapter 2 (‘Crusader Nobility and the Feudal System’); and Chapter 3 (‘Estates, Communities, and the Constitution of the Latin Kingdom’). Chapter 3 is available via the Online Resource button.

        2. Medieval frontiers: concepts and practices - David Abulafia, Nora Berend c2002

          Book  Chapter: Riley-Smith, J. ‘Government and the indigenous in the Latin kingdom of Jerusalem’, pp 121-31. Reprinted in J. Riley-Smith, 'Crusaders and Settlers in the Latin East' (Ashgate/Variorum, 2008). Available via the Online Resource button.

        3. The feudal nobility and the Kingdom of Jerusalem, 1174-1277 - Jonathan Simon Christopher Riley-Smith 1973

          Book  Especially pp 1-98. The domain in the towns, pp. 62-98, available via the Online Resource button.

    2. Additional Reading 3 items
      1. Muslims under Latin rule, 1100-1300 - James M. Powell, Ebooks Corporation Limited 2014

        Book  Chapter: Kedar, B.Z. ‘Subjected Muslims of the Frankish Levant’, pp. 135-174. Reprinted in Madden, T.F. (ed.), 'The Crusades. The Essential Readings' (Oxford / Malden, MA, 2002), pp. 233-6.

      2. The Crusades: the essential readings - Thomas F. Madden 2002

        Book  Chapter: Kedar, B.Z. ‘Subjected Muslims of the Frankish Levant’, pp. 233-6. Originally printed in 'Muslims under Latin Rule, 1100-1300', ed. J. Powell (Princeton, 1990), pp. 135-174

  12. 10. How significant were queens in the governance of twelfth-century kingdoms? 26 items
    1. Medieval queenship - Theresa Earenfight 03/2017

      Article 

    2. Queenship in medieval Europe - Theresa Earenfight 2013

      Book 

    3. Medieval women - Deirdre Elizabeth Jackson 2015

      Book 

    4. Aristocratic women in medieval France - Theodore Evergates c1999

      Book  Chapter 2: ‘Aristocratic women in the Chartrain’, pp. 44-110. (The Introduction and Chapter 1 are also relevant).

    5. Noblewomen, aristocracy and power in the twelfth-century Anglo-Norman realm - Susan M. Johns 2003 (electronic resource)

      Book  Especially Chapter 2 (‘Power and portrayal’), Chapter 3, (‘Patronage and Power’), Chapter 4 (‘Countesses), Chapter 5 (‘Witnessing’) and Chapter 10 (Conclusion)

    6. Gendering the crusades - Susan Edgington, Sarah Lambert c2002

      Book  Chapter: Schein, S. ‘Women in Medieval Colonial Society: the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem in the Twelfth Century’, pp. 140-53. Available via the Online Resource button.

    7. Memory and gender in medieval Europe, 900-1200 - Elisabeth Maria Cornelia van Houts 1999

      Book  Chapter 4 pp. 65-9, available via the Online Resource button. (Chapter 7 also worth a look).

    8. A history of women in the West - Georges Duby, Michelle Perrot 1992-1994

      Book  Volume 2: Silences of the Middle Ages (1992): see P. L’ Hermite-Leclercq’s chapter, ‘The Feudal Order’, pp. 202-29.

    9. The medieval idea of marriage - Christopher Nugent Lawrence Brooke 2002 (electronic resource)

      Book  pp. 119-61, 248-79

    10. Palgrave advances in the Crusades - Nicholson, Helen J., Dawson Books 2005 (electronic resource)

      Book  Chapter by D. Gerish, 'Gender Theory', raises some interesting questions about the possibilities for future study of women in the crusades ...

    11. Medieval marriage: two models from twelfth-century France - Georges Duby, Elborg Forster, American Council of Learned Societies c1991 (electronic resource)

      Book  Chapter 1: ‘Two Models of Marriage, the Aristocratic and the Ecclesiastical’

    12. Medieval women: a social history of women in England, 450-1500 - Henrietta Leyser 1996, c1995

      Book 

    13. Medieval women - Deirdre Elizabeth Jackson 2015

      Book 

    14. A cultural history of women in the Middle Ages - Kim M. Phillips 2013

      Book 

    15. Women's roles in the Middle Ages - Sandy Bardsley 2007

      Book 

  13. Primary Source Online and in Print: 6 items
    1. Medieval writings on secular women - Patricia Skinner, Elisabeth M. C. Van Houts 2011

      Book 

    2. Women's lives in medieval Europe: a sourcebook - Emilie Amt 1993

      Book 

    3. Internet History Sourcebooks

      Webpage  The 'Autobiography' of the northern French abbot and historian of the First Crusade, Guibert of Nogent. He came from the knightly/minor nobility level of society. See Book One, where his mother plays a major role in the narrative, as wife, mother and widow. Does her son's account of her marriage and widowhood suggest that she was entirely a pawn in the hands of husband and kinsman? Or does she display a certain amount of independence and agency?

    4. A monk's confession: the memoirs of Guibert of Nogent - Guibert, Archambault, Paul J. c1996

      Book  Recent translation of Guibert's 'Autobiography' - the Introduction gives some background information on him and his family.

    5. Self and society in medieval France: the memoirs of Abbot Guibert of Nogent (1064?-c.1125) - Guibert, Benton, J. F., Bland, C. C. Swinton 1970

      Book  Older print translation with intro

  14. 11. Why did eleventh- and twelfth-century papal reform cause so many problems in the relationships between the papacy and the empire? 33 items
    1. Medieval Germany, 500-1300: a political interpretation - Benjamin Arnold 1997

      Book 

    2. Henry IV of Germany: 1056-1106 - I. S. Robinson 1999

      Book 

    3. Two cities: medieval Europe, 1050-1320 - Barber, Malcolm, Dawson Books 2004 (electronic resource)

      Book  Chapter 4.

    4. The Medieval Papacy - Geoffrey Barraclough 1992, c1968

      Book 

    5. Saints and sinners: a history of the Popes - Eamon Duffy c1997

      Book  Chapter 3 Parts I-III, pp.110-50.

    6. The medieval church: a brief history - Joseph H. Lynch, Ebooks Corporation Limited 2014

      Book  ch.12.

    7. The papal monarchy: the Western church from 1050 to 1250 - Colin Morris, American Council of Learned Societies 1989 (electronic resource)

      Book  Chapters 4, 5, 7-9, 16,17, 21, 22 are all valuable

    8. The papacy 1073-1198: continuity and innovation - I. S. Robinson 1990

      Book  Chapter 7: 'Papal finance', available via the Online Resource button.

    9. The Western church in the Middle Ages - John A. F. Thomson 1998

      Book  Section 2, especially chapters on ‘Gregorian reform: Popes and lay world’, ‘Theology and Law’ ‘Authority and Government’

    10. Studies of Individual Popes 9 items
      1. Innocent III: studies on papal authority and pastoral care - Brenda Bolton 1995

        Book  Especially ‘A Show with meaning; Fourth Lateran Council’

      2. Adrian IV the English Pope (1154-1159): studies and texts - Brenda Bolton, Anne Duggan 2003

        Book 

      3. Pope Gregory VII, 1073-1085 - H. E. J. Cowdrey, Oxford University Press 1998 (electronic resource)

        Book  Especially Chapter 8

      4. Ten popes who shook the world - Eamon Duffy c2011 (electronic resource)

        Book 

      5. Innocent III: vicar of Christ or Lord of the world? - James M. Powell c1994

        Book 

      6. Innocent III: leader of Europe 1198-1216 - Jane E. Sayers 1994

        Book 

      7. Calixtus II (1119-1124): a pope born to rule - Mary Stroll 2004

        Book 

    11. Primary Sources Online: 3 items
      1. The papal reform of the eleventh century: lives of Pope Leo IX and Pope Gregory VII - I. S. Robinson 2004 (electronic resource)

        Book  Especially Paul of Bernried

    12. Primary Sources in Print 6 items
      1. Boso's life of Alexander III - Boso, Peter Munz 1973

        Book  Introduction

      2. The deeds of Pope Innocent III - James M. Powell c2004

        Book 

      3. Historia pontificalis - John of Salisbury, Marjorie Chibnall 1956

        Book 

      4. The crisis of church and state, 1050-1300 - Brian Tierney, Medieval Academy of America 1988, c1964

        Book  Parts II and III

      5. Power and the holy in the age of the investiture conflict: a brief history with documents - Maureen C. Miller c2005

        Book 

  15. 12. Why should the epidemiological and biological character of the Black Death and successive plagues of the late Middle Ages matter to the historian (who is not a historian of medicine or biology)? 9 items
    1. Epidemics: hate and compassion from the Plague of Athens to AIDS - Samuel Kline Cohn 2018

      Book  Chapter 3: Black Death Persecution and Abandonment Chapter 4: Mechanisms for Unity

    2. A draft genome of Yersinia pestis from victims of the Black Death - Kirsten I. Bos,Verena J. Schuenemann,G. Brian Golding,Hernan A. Burbano,Nicholas Waglechner,Brian K. Coombes

      Article 

    3. The Routledge history of the Renaissance 2017

      Book 

    4. The Routledge history of disease 2017

      Book 

  16. 13. Was conversion to Christianity the most important factor in the formation of the Kievan state? 22 items
    1. Primary sources 4 items
      1. Medieval Russian laws - Vernadsky, George 1979, c1947

        Book 

    2. Secondary Literature 18 items
      1. The emergence of Rus: 750-1200 - Simon Franklin, Jonathan Shepard 1996

        Book Essential

      2. Writing, society and culture in early Rus, c. 950-1300 - Simon Franklin 2002

        Book Essential

      3. Rus' - Jonathan Shepard

        Chapter Essential

      4. Medieval Russia, 980-1584 - Janet Martin c2007

        Book Essential

      5. The Earliest Mediaeval Churches of Kiev - Samuel H. Cross, H. V. Morgilevski, K. J. Conant 10/1936

        Article 

  17. 14. To what extent should we consider the revolts of the late Middle Ages as brought on by poverty and inequality? 9 items
    1. England, arise: the people, the King and the Great Revolt of 1381 - Juliet R. V. Barker 2014

      Book 

  18. 15. On balance the impact of the Mongols on medieval western Christendom was more positive than negative. Discuss. 30 items
    1. Primary Sources 4 items
      1. Gesta Hungarorum - Rogerius 2010

        Book 

      2. The travels of Marco Polo - Marco Polo 1958

        Book 

    2. Secondary Literature 26 items
      1. General Reading 4 items
        1. The Mongols and the west, 1221-1410 - Peter Jackson 2005

          Book 

        2. The Mongols - David Morgan 2007

          Book 

        3. The Mongol conquests in world history - Timothy Michael May 2012

          Book 

      2. Related Reading 22 items
        1. Monstrous Mongols - Noreen Giffney 2012-5

          Article 

  19. 16. How important was international trade to late medieval European cities and why? 11 items
    1. Before European hegemony: the world system A.D. 1250-1350 - Janet L. Abu-Lughod 1991

      Book 

    2. The first European revolution, c. 970-1215 - R. I. Moore 2000

      Book 

    3. An economic and social history of later medieval Europe, 1000-1500 - Steven Epstein 2009

      Book 

    4. The perspective of the world - Fernand Braudel 1984

      Book 

    5. The wheels of commerce - Fernand Braudel 1982

      Book 

    6. The discovery of mankind: Atlantic encounters in the age of Columbus - David Abulafia c2008

      Book 

  20. LECTURE AND SEMINAR READING 55 items
    1. The coming of Christianity to Anglo-Saxon England - Henry Mayr-Harting 1991

      Book  See: Mayr-Harting H., The Gregorian Mission, Chapter 3, pp. 51-68, available via the Online Resource button.

    2. Observations on the conversion of England - J. Campbell 1973

      Article  Available via the Online Resource button.

    3. The Anglo-Saxons - James Campbell, Patrick Wormald, John Eric 1982

      Book  See: Campbell, J. The First Christian Kings, Chapter 3, pp. 45-69, available via the Online Resource button.

    4. The Cambridge History of Scandinavia: Volume 1: Prehistory to 1520 2003

      Book  See: Sawyer, P. H., The Viking expansion, Chapter 5, pp. 105-120.

    5. Logistics of warfare in the Age of the Crusades: proceedings of a workshop held at the Centre for Medieval Studies, University of Sydney, 30 September to 4 October 2002 - John H. Pryor c2006

      Book  See: Madden T. F., Food and the Fourth Crusade: a new approach to the 'Diversion Question', Chapter 11, pp. 209-228. Available via the Online Resource button.

    6. Medieval virginities - Anke Bernau, Ruth Evans, Sarah Salih 2003

      Book  Bernau A., 'Saint, witch, man, maid or whore?' Joan of Arc and writing history, Chapter 11, pp. 214-233. Available via the Online Resource button.

    7. The kingdom of Northumbria AD 350-1100 - N. J. Higham 1993

      Book  See: Higham N. J., Politics and the conversion (chapter 4), pp. 105-139. Available via the Online Resource button.

    8. Anglo-Saxon paganism - David Raoul Wilson 1992

      Book  See: Wilson, D. Written evidence, Chapter 2, pp. 22-43. Available via the Online Resource button.

    9. The Middle Ages in texts and texture: reflections on Medieval sources - Jason Glenn, Robert Brentano c2011

      Book  See: Rubenstein J., Conversion, miracles and the creation of a people in Bede's Ecclesiastical history, Chapter 8, pp. 93-104. Available via the Online Resource button.

    10. Anglo-Norman England, 1066-1166 - Marjorie Chibnall 1986

      Book  See: Chibnall M., Normans and English, Chapter 9, pp. 208-218. Available via the Online Resource button.

    11. Domination and conquest: the experience of Ireland, Scotland and Wales 1100-1300 - R. R. Davies 1990

      Book  See: Davies R. R., Patterns of domination, Chapter 1, pp. 1-24. Available via the Online Resource button.

    12. England in Europe 1066-1453 - Nigel Saul 1994

      Book  See: Davies R. R., Failure of the first British empire? England's relations with Ireland, Scotland and Wales 1066-1500, Chapter 11, pp. 121-132. Available via the Online Resource button.

    13. The Norman Conquest - Donald Matthew 1966

      Book  See: Matthew D., The Norman settlement, Chapter 4, pp. 89-128. Available via the Online Resource button.

    14. The English and the Norman Conquest - Ann Williams 1995

      Book  See: Williams, A., Survivors, Chapter 4, pp. 71-97. Available via the Online Resource button.

    15. Anglo-Norman studies: 19: Proceedings of the Battle Conference 1996 - Christopher Harper-Bill, Battle Conference on Anglo-Norman Studies 1997

      Book  Strickland M., Military technology and conquest : the anatomy of Anglo-Saxon England, Chapter 13, pp. 353-382. Available via the Online Resource button.

    16. The first crusaders, 1095-1131 - Jonathan Simon Christopher Riley-Smith 1997

      Book  See: Riley-Smith J., Preaching and the crusaders, Chapter 3, pp. 53-80. Available via the Online Resource button.

    17. Studies in medieval history presented to R.H.C. Davis - R. H. C. Davis, Henry Mayr-Harting, R. I. Moore 1985

      Book  See: Davies, R. R., Henry I and Wales, Chapter 10, pp. 133-147. Available via the Online Resource button.

    18. The Norman fate, 1100-1154 - David C. Douglas 1976

      Book  See: Douglas D. C., The advent of Roger the Great, 1101-1129, Chapter 2, pp. 31-47. Available via the Online Resource button.

    19. The history of the Albigensian Crusade: Peter of les Vaux-de-Cernay's Historia Albigensis - W. A. Sibly, M. D. Sibly, Petrus Sarnensis 1998

      Book  See: Petrus Sarnensis, Extracts, pp. 48-51 and 276-277. Available via the Online Resource button.

    20. The later Crusades, 1189-1311 - Harry W. Hazard, Robert Lee Wolff, University of Wisconsin-Madison. Libraries 1969 (electronic resource)

      Book  See: Evans A. P., The Albigensian Crusade, Chapter 8, Vol. 2, pp. 277-324.

    21. Renaissance thought and its sources - Paul Oskar Kristeller, Michael Mooney 1979

      Book  See: Kristeller, P., The immortality of the soul, Chapter 10, pp. 181-196. Available via the Online Resource button.

    22. The Middle Ages - Carlo M. Cipolla 1972

      Book  See: Duby, G., Medieval agriculture, 900-1500, Chapter 5, pp. 175-220. Available via the Online Resource button.

    23. The First Crusade: the call from the East - Peter Frankopan 2012

      Book  See: Frankopan, P., The response of the West, Chapter 7, pp. 101-117. Available via the Online Resource button.

    24. British wheat yield per acre for seven centuries - M.K. Bennett 1935

      Article  Available via the Online Resource button.

    25. Concepts of national identity in the Middle Ages - Simon Forde, Lesley Johnson, Alan V. Murray c1995

      Book  See: Murray, A., Ethnic identity in the crusader states: the Frankish race and the settlement of Outremer, pp. 59-73. Available via the Online Resource button.

    26. Famine, disease and the social order in early modern society - John Walter, R. S. Schofield 1989

      Book  See: Wrigley, E. A., Some reflections on corn yields and prices in pre-industrial economies, Chapter 7, pp. 235-278. Available via the Online Resource button.

    27. Family trees and the roots of politics: the prosopography of Britain and France from the tenth to the twelfth century - K. S. B. Keats-Rohan 1997

      Book  See: Murray, A., How Norman was the Principality of Antioch? Prolegomena to a study of the origins of the nobility of a crusader state, Chapter 16, pp. 349-359. Available via the Online Resource button.

    28. The Environment of man: the Iron Age to the Anglo-Saxon period - Martin Jones, G. W. Dimbleby 1981

      Book  See: Jones, M., The development of crop husbandry, Chapter 6, pp. 95-127. Available via the Online Resource button.

    29. The Work of work: servitude, slavery, and labor in medieval England - Allen J. Frantzen, Douglas Moffat 1994

      Book  See: Brady, N., Labor and agriculture in early medieval Ireland: evidence from the sources, Chapter 7, pp. 125-145. Available via the Online Resource button.

    30. The Horns of Ḥaṭṭīn - B. Z. Kẹdar, Society for the Study of the Crusades and the Latin East. Conference, Ḥevrah la-ḥaḳirat Erets-Yiśra'el ṿe-ʻatiḳoteha c1992

      Book  See: Housley, N., Jerusalem and the development of the crusade idea, 1099-1128, pp. 27-40. Available via the Online Resource button.

    31. The Crusades and the Near East - Conor Kostick, Dawson Books 2011

      Book  See: Murray, A. V., National identity, language and conflict in the crusades to the Holy Land, 1096-1192, Chapter 5, pp. 107-130.

    32. Early Christian Ireland: introduction to the sources - Kathleen Hughes 1972

      Book  See: Hughes, K., Note from Dr Charles-Edwards on common farming, pp. 61-64. Available via the Online Resource button.

    33. Crusades: Vols 1 & 2 - B. Z. Kẹdar, Jonathan Simon Christopher Riley-Smith, Society for the Study of the Crusades and the Latin East 2003

      Book  See: Reynolds, S., Fiefs and vassals in twelfth-century Jerusalem: a view from the West, Vol. 1, pp. 29-48. Available via the Online Resource button.

    34. The medieval crusade - Susan J. Ridyard, Sewanee Mediaeval Colloquium 2004

      Book  See: Rubenstein, J., How, or how much, to reevaluate Peter the Hermit, pp. 53-69. Available via the Online Resource button.

    35. The Normans - R. Allen Brown 1994

      Book  See: Brown, R. A., The Normans in the South : Italy and Sicily, Chapter 5, pp. 93-129. Available via the Online Resource button.

    36. In search of the Dark Ages - Michael Wood 2005

      Book  See: The Sutton Hoo man, Chapter 3, pp. 61-79. Available via the Online Resource button.

    37. The history of the Jews in the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem - Joshua Prawer 1988

      Book  See: Prawer, J., The Jewish community: organization, legal and social position, Chapter 5, pp. 93-127. Available via the Online Resource button.

    38. Conquest and colonisation: the Normans in Britain, 1066-1100 - Brian Golding c2013

      Book  See: Golding, B., Governing the conquered, Chapter 5, pp. 85-113. Available via the Online Resource button.

    39. Proceedings of the Battle Conference on Anglo-Norman Studies, IV, 1981 - R. Allen Brown, Battle Conference on Anglo-Norman Studies 1982, c1981

      Book  See: Loud, G., The 'Gens Normannorum' - myth or reality?, pp. 104-116 and 204-209. Available via the Online Resource button.

    40. The Cathars: dualist heretics in Languedoc in the high Middle Ages - Malcolm Barber 2013

      Book  See: Barber, M.,The Cathar church, Chapter 3, pp. 85-126. Available via the Online Resource button.

    41. Heresy and the persecuting society in the Middle Ages: essays on the work of R.I. Moore - R. I. Moore, Michael Frassetto 2006

      Book  See: Marvin, L. W. The massacre at Béziers July 22, 1209: a revisionist look.

    42. The origins of European dissent - R. I. Moore c1994

      Book 

    43. The devil's world: heresy and society 1100-1300 - Andrew P. Roach 2005

      Book 

    44. The birth of popular heresy - R. I. Moore 1975

      Book 

    45. The first European revolution, c. 970-1215 - R. I. Moore 2000

      Book 

    46. Lay kinship and solidarity and papal law - David D'Avray

      Chapter 

    47. Alienated minority: the Jews of Medieval Latin Europe - Kenneth R. Stow 1994

      Book 

    48. The Popes’ “other sheep” - E. A. Synan

      Chapter 

    49. Toward a definition of antisemitism - Gavin I. Langmuir, American Council of Learned Societies 1996, c1990 (electronic resource)

      Book 

    50. History, religion and antisemitism - Gavin I. Langmuir c1990

      Book