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This list relates to the semester Semester Two 2018/19 which does not start until 01/01/2019
  1. This course aims to explore the nature of chivalry in aristocratic culture in relation to the conduct of warfare in theory and in practice. In his seminal study The Waning of the Middle Ages, the Dutch historian and anthropologist Jan Huizinga argued that by the fifteenth century, concepts of chivalry had become ossified and anachronistic. As displays of chivalric culture became more elaborate and notions of chivalry more self consciously articulated and developed, so an increasingly wide gulf emerged between reality and perception, between outmoded ideals that had lost the vigour they had once enjoyed and the brutal realities of war as revealed by the Hundred Years War and subsequent conflicts. Not only had chivalry lost touch with the rapid developments in weaponry and in armies that made the knight redundant, but chivalry itself had become a cynical cloak for brutality and profiteering in war. This profoundly influential thesis still enjoys its adherents, but has been seriously challenged by historians such as Maurice Keen and Malcolm Vale. They argue that far from stagnating in the face of technological and social change, the warrior elites of Europe were quick to adapt to new forms of warfare, and that chivalry, even in most extravagant manifestations, remained a vital aspect of aristocratic life on as much as off the battlefield.

                    This module will explore key aspects of this debate. To what extent did the 'infantry revolutions' of the late thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, which witnessed the increasing role of pikemen, spearmen and archers on the battlefield, challenge the nobility's methods of combat, and how did they respond? How did the aristocracy react to the rapid development of artillery and firearms? To what extent was there a clash between notions of honour and military professionalism? How far do theoretical treatises on war reflect intellectual engagement with the changing face of war? Did increasingly elaborate tournaments and jousts retain any serious military and social purpose? What was the role of religious belief in warfare, and was crusading still an integral element in the chivalric ideal? We shall also explore the role played by the 'law of arms' in later medieval chivalry, as well as examining the operation of conventions of ransom and the profits of war which were such a key incentive in the prosecution of war.

  2. Introductory Bibliography 20 items
    A full bibliography for each seminar is listed below. The following general studies on chivalry will be of value throughout the course, and will provide essential context
    1. Chivalry 8 items
      1. Chivalry - Maurice H. Keen c1984

        Book Essential

      2. For honour and fame: chivalry in England, 1066-1500 - Nigel Saul 2011

        Book Essential

      3. Medieval chivalry - Richard W. Kaeuper 2016

        Book Essential

      4. Chivalry and violence in medieval Europe - Richard W. Kaeuper, Oxford University Press 2001 (electronic resource)

        Book Essential

      5. Holy warriors: the religious ideology of chivalry - Richard W. Kaeuper 2009

        Book Essential

      6. Chivalry - Kathryn Hurlock 2013-

        Article Essential A useful annotated bibliography

    2. Later Medieval Warfare 12 items
      1. War in the Middle Ages - Philippe Contamine 1984

        Book Essential

      2. A history of the art of war in the Middle Ages - Charles William Chadwick Oman 1924

        Book Essential now very dated, but a useful overview

      3. Armies and warfare in the Middle Ages: the English experience - Michael Prestwich 1996

        Book Essential

      4. Medieval warfare: a history - Ebooks Corporation Limited 1999

        Book Essential

      5. Medieval warfare 1300-1450 - Kelly DeVries c2010

        Book Essential reprints some key papers

      6. Medieval warfare: a bibliographical guide - Everett U. Crosby 2000

        Book Essential

      7. The three volumes below contain a number of useful papers on aspects of warfare and chivalry.

      8. Hundred Years War: a wider focus - L. J. Andrew Villalon, Donald J. Kagay 2005

        Book Essential

      9. The Hundred Years War (part II): different vistas - L. J. Andrew Villalon, Donald J. Kagay 2008

        Book Essential

      10. The Hundred Years War (part III): further considerations - L. J. Andrew Villalon, Donald J. Kagay 2013

        Book Essential

      11. The Hundred Years War - Jonathan Sumption 1991-2015

        Book Essential 5 volumes - the standard narrative history of the war, which provides essential context for the study of specific campaigns and battles

  3. Introduction: Chivalry in Decline? Huizinga, Keen and Sir Thomas Grey 11 items
    This introductory seminar explores the critique of later medieval chivalry by the famous Dutch anthropologist Johan Huizinga, and the response of the greatest modern historian of chivalry, Maurice Keen, a debate which in many essentials informs the wider framework of this course. By way of comparison, we will also look at a chivalric voice from the mid-fourteenth century, Sir Thomas Grey, whose Scalacronica is one of the earliest vernacular chronicles written by an English nobleman and which provides a valuable reflection of the attitudes of a soldier and castellan on the Anglo-Scottish borders.
    1. Class reading 5 items
      1. The waning of the Middle Ages - Huizinga, Johan 1999

        Book  There are many reprints of this work. See chapters 4, 6, 7.

      2. Chivalry - Keen, Maurice H. c1984

        Book  See chapter 1.

      3. Huizinga, Kilgour and the Decline of Chivalry - M. Keen

        Chapter  Available via Online Resource button.

      4. Fourteenth century England - Nigel Saul, Chris Given-Wilson, W. M. Ormrod, J. S. Hamilton 2000-2012

        Chapter  See: King, A., ‘A Helm with a Crest of Gold; the Order of Chivalry in Thomas Grey’s Scalacronica’, in Volume 1, pp. 21-35.

    2. Background Reading 6 items
      1. War, literature and politics in the late Middle Ages - Allmand, C. T., Coopland, George William 1976

        Book  See: Armstrong, C. A. J., ‘Sir John Fastolf and the Law of Arms’

  4. 2) The Dawn of an Infantry Revolution? Courtrai (1302) and Bannockburn (1314) 49 items
    In 1296, Edward I successfully invaded Scotland, with his forces routing the Scots army at Dunbar. The following year, however, William Wallace and Andrew Murray inflicted a heavy defeat on an English army at Stirling Bridge. This reverse brought Edward in north in person at the head of a massive army, which routed Wallace’s forces at the battle of Falkirk in 1298 by a combination of heavy cavalry and archers. Only four years later, however, the forces of the Flemish towns destroyed a major French army at the battle of Courtrai. At Bannockburn in 1314, this phenomenon was repeated when massed Scottish spearmen under Robert Bruce won an impressive victory over the numerically and qualitatively superior army of Edward II of England. These engagements have been seen by some historians as marking what has been termed ‘an infantry revolution’, which, it has been claimed, spelt the demise of the knight and heavy cavalry warfare on the medieval European battlefield. Such a view needs to be substantially qualified, but a comparison of the great battles of Courtrai and Bannockburn sheds much light on the nature of early fourteenth century warfare and on conduct in battle. * Presentation 1: Why did the Flemish win the battle of Courtrai, and how effectively did the French respond to Flemish tactics in subsequent battles during the fourteenth century? *Presentation 2: Why did the English lose the battle of Bannockburn, and how do contemporary sources explain the defeat?
    1. Texts 5 items
      1. The Battle of the Golden Spurs, 1302

        Article  The battle of Courtrai, from the Annales Gandenses, ed. H. Johnston (Oxford, 1986), available in extract here.

      2. The life of Edward the Second - Monk of Malmesbury 1957

        Book  See: pp. 48-59.

      3. Scalacronica 1272-1363 - Thomas Gray, Andy King, Surtees Society 2005

        Book  See: pp. 69-85.

      4. The chronicle of Lanercost, 1272-1346 - Herbert Maxwell, James Wilson, Internet Archive (Firm) 1913 (electronic resource)

        Book  See: pp. 194-217

      5. The Bruce - John Barbour, A. A. M. Duncan 1997

        Book  See: pp. 412-508

    2. Essential Class reading 11 items
      1. Chivalry - Keen, Maurice H. c1984

        Book Essential Read chapters 1 and 4

      2. The book of chivalry of Geoffroi de Charny: text, context, and translation - Kaeuper, Richard W., Kennedy, Elspeth, Charny, Geoffroi de, NetLibrary, Inc 1996 (electronic resource)

        Book Essential Read Introduction, especially, 19-64.

      3. The book of chivalry of Geoffroi de Charny: text, context, and translation - Richard W. Kaeuper, Elspeth Kennedy, Geoffroi de Charny c1996

        Book Essential

      4. Chivalry and violence in medieval Europe - Kaeuper, Richard W., Oxford University Press 2001 (electronic resource)

        Book Essential Read chapter 13

      5. Edward III's Prisoners of War: The Battle of Poitiers and Its Context - Chris Given-Wilson and Françoise Bériac Sep., 2001

        Article Essential

      6. The art of warfare in Western Europe during the Middle Ages: from the eighth century to 1340 - J. F. Verbruggen, NetLibrary, Inc 1997 (electronic resource)

        Book Essential See: Chapter 3 by Verbruggen, J. F., ‘The Foot Soldiers’

      7. Robert Bruce and the community of the realm of Scotland - G. W. S. Barrow 2005 (electronic resource)

        Book Essential See: 'Bannockburn'(Chapter 12)

      8. Medieval warfare: a history - Ebooks Corporation Limited 1999

        Book Essential See: N. Housley, ‘European Warfare, c. 1200 -1320’, a useful broad overview of the period preceding the ‘infantry revolution’

    3. Further Reading 33 items
      1. On the battle of Courtrai 4 items
        1. The art of warfare in Western Europe during the Middle Ages: from the eighth century to 1340 - J. F. Verbruggen, NetLibrary, Inc 1997 (electronic resource)

          Book  See: Chapter 3 by Verbruggen, J. F., ‘The Foot Soldiers’ Print copies of this book also in stock @ Main Library Level 8 History CG230 VER

        2. The art of war in the Middle Ages, A.D. 378-1515 - Charles William Chadwick Oman, John Beeler c1953

          Book 

      2. On Bannockburn 7 items
        1. Robert Bruce and the community of the realm of Scotland - G. W. S. Barrow 2005 (electronic resource)

          Book  See: 'Bannockburn'(Chapter 12)

        2. Bannockburn: the triumph of Robert the Bruce - David Cornell c2009

          Book 

        3. Bannockburn - John Edward Morris 1914

          Book 

        4. The battle of Bannockburn, 1314 - Aryeh J. S. Nusbacher 2000

          Book 

      3. On English armies under Edward I and Edward II 17 items
        1. War, politics and finance under Edward I - Michael Prestwich 1972

          Book 

        2. Edward I’s armies - Michael Prestwich 09/2011

          Article 

        3. Armies and warfare in the Middle Ages: the English experience - Michael Prestwich, NetLibrary, Inc 1996 (electronic resource)

          Book  See especially Chapter. 2, ‘The Military Elite’ and Chapter 5, ‘Infantry’.

        4. Armies and warfare in the Middle Ages: the English experience - Michael Prestwich 1996

          Book 

        5. Edward I - Michael Prestwich 1997

          Book 

        6. Edward II - J. R. S. Phillips 2010

          Book 

        7. A great and terrible king: Edward I and the forging of Britain - Marc Morris 2008

          Book 

        8. The Wallace book - Edward J. Cowan, Ebooks Corporation Limited 2007 (electronic resource)

          Book  See: Prestwich, M., ‘The Battle of Stirling Bridge: An English Perspective’, pp. 64-76.

        9. England and Scotland at war, c.1296-c.1513 - Andy King, David Simpkin 2012

          Book  See: Spencer, A. M. ‘John, Earl of Warenne, Guardian of Scotland, and the Battle of Stirling Bridge’, pp. 39-52.

        10. England and Scotland in the fourteenth century: new perspectives - Andy King, Michael A. Penman 2007

          Book  See: Simpkin, D., ‘The English Army and the Scottish Campaign of 1310-1311’, pp. 14-39.

      4. Chivalry in the Age of Bannockburn 5 items
        1. For honour and fame: chivalry in England, 1066-1500 - Nigel Saul 2011

          Book  see: Ch. 5 ‘Kingship and War, 1272-1327’.

        2. War, government and aristocracy in the British Isles, c.1150-1500: essays in honour of Michael Prestwich - Chris Given-Wilson, Ann J. Kettle, Len Scales 2008 (electronic resource)

          Book  See: King, A. ‘War and Peace: A Knight’s Tale. The Ethics of war in Sir Thomas Grey’s Scalacronica’, pp. 148-62.

        3. Fourteenth century England - Nigel Saul, Chris Given-Wilson, W. M. Ormrod, J. S. Hamilton 2000-2012

          Book  See: Volume 1. King, A. ‘A Helm with a Crest of Gold; the Order of Chivalry in Thomas Grey’s Scalacronica’, pp. 21-35.

        4. England and Scotland at war, c.1296-c.1513 2012

          Book  See: Beam, A. G. ‘At the Apex of Chivalry: Sir Ingram de Umfraville and the Anglo-Scottish Wars’, pp. 53-75.

  5. 3) Edward III and the Triumph of the Longbow: Halidon Hill, 1333 and Crécy, 1346 23 items
    Continuing our examination of theme of the ‘infantry revolution’, this seminar explores the rising importance of the longbow in English armies from the fourteenth century, and the development of battle winning tactics by Edward III and his captains, which combined archers with dismounted men-at-arms in a devastating defensive formation. Though there were antecedents for such tactics, they emerge as distinct military thinking with the battles of Dupplin Moor (1332), won by a force under Edward Balliol against the Scots, then that of Halidon Hill (1333), in which Edward III destroyed a major Scottish army outside Berwick. With the outbreak of the Hundred Years War in 1337, Edward sought to deploy these successful tactics against the French, but had to wait until 1346 until King Philip VI finally committed to a major battle at Crécy. The resulting triumph for the English marked out Edward III as the greatest general of his age, and led to his formation of the elite order of chivalry, the Order of the Garter. An examination and comparison of Halidon Hill and Crécy raise important questions not only about tactics and the (disputed) significance of the longbow as a winning weapon, but of strategy, and the place of battle-seeking within it.
    1. Texts 4 items
      1. The life and campaigns of the Black Prince from contemporary letters, diaries and chronicles, including Chandos Herald's Life of the Black Prince - Richard W. Barber, Chandos 1986

        Book  See: Geoffrey le Baker’s description of the battle of Crécy, pp. 42-45.

      2. The true chronicles of Jean Le Bel 1290-1360 - Jehan Le Bel, Nigel Bryant 2011

        Book  See: Jean Le Bel's account of Crécy, pp. 179-183.

      3. The Chronicles of Froissart Froissart

        Document  See: account of the Battle of Crecy, 1346.

    2. Class Reading 4 items
      1. Edward III and the Scots: the formative years of a military career, 1327-1335 - Ranald Nicholson 1965

        Book  See: ch. 9 ‘The Siege of Berwick’ (and see also ch. 6, ‘Dupplin Moor’).

      2. War cruel and sharp: English strategy under Edward III, 1327-1360 - Clifford J. Rogers 2000

        Book  See: ch. 3 ‘Halidon Hill’.

    3. Further Reading 5 items
      1. Arms, armies and fortifications in the Hundred Years War - Anne Curry, Michael Hughes 1994

        Book  See: Bennett, M. ‘The Development of Battle Tactics in the Hundred Years War’.

      2. The great warbow: from Hastings to the Mary Rose - Matthew Strickland, Robert Hardy c2005

        Book  See: chapters 12, 13, 16.

      3. War cruel and sharp: English strategy under Edward III, 1327-1360 - Clifford J. Rogers 2000

        Book 

      4. Medieval warfare: a history 1999

        Book  See: Rogers, C. ‘The Age of the Hundred Years War’.

    4. For the Battle of Halidon Hill 2 items
      1. Edward III and the Scots: the formative years of a military career, 1327-1335 - Ranald Nicholson 1965

        Book  See: ch. 9 ‘The Siege of Berwick’ (and see also ch. 6, ‘Dupplin Moor’).

    5. On the Battle of Crecy: 8 items
      1. The battle of Crécy, 1346 - Andrew Ayton, Philip Preston 2005

        Book  See especially chapters 1 and 4.

      2. The road to Crécy: the English invasion of France, 1346 - Marilyn Livingstone, Morgen Witzel 2005

        Book 

      3. England and Normandy in the Middle Ages c1994 (electronic resource)

        Book  See: Ayton, A. “The English Army and the Normandy Campaign of 1346", pp. 253–268.

      4. Chivalry - Maurice H. Keen c1984

        Book  See: ch. 10.

      5. The knights of the Crown: the monarchical orders of knighthood in later medieval Europe 1325-1520 - D'Arcy Jonathan Dacre Boulton 2000, c1987

        Book  See: ch. 4, ‘Order of the Garter’ and ch. 5, ‘The Company of the Star’.

  6. 4) Garter and Star: The Monarchical Orders of Chivalry in the Fourteenth Century 17 items
    The fourteenth century witnessed the emergence of a series of chivalric orders, of which the ‘monarchical orders’, founded kings, were the most significant. Though influenced by the first of such orders, the Castilian Order of the Band, Edward III’s Order of the Garter, founded in 1348 in the wake of his victorious campaigns in 1346-7, consciously drew on the Arthurian Round Table to create an elite fraternity of knights and to add martial lustre to English kingship. Such was its military and political significance that the French King Jean II soon emulated Edward by creating his own chivalric order, The Order of the Star. Though short-lived, the order was intended by the king as a means of political as well as military reform, and it was almost certainly for its elite brotherhood that the renowned French knight, Sir Geoffrey de Charny, wrote his famous Livre de Chevalerie as well as his Demandes, a series of questions on conduct put to the Order. A comparative examination of these two orders sheds important light on the significance of chivalric ideals, and their expression through these elite confraternities of warriors.
    1. Presentation 1: What do the statutes of the Order of the Garter reveal about the nature of this chivalric confraternity and its purposes?

    2. Presentation 2:  What does the Order of the Star, and, more widely, Geoffrey de Charny's Livre de Chevalerie reveal about the place of religion within the chivalric ethos?

       

       

    3. Chivalry - Maurice H. Keen c1984

      Book  See: chapter 10.

    4. The knights of the Crown: the monarchical orders of knighthood in later medieval Europe 1325-1520 - D'Arcy Jonathan Dacre Boulton 2000, c1987

      Book  See: ch. 4, ‘Order of the Garter’ and ch. 5, ‘The Company of the Star’.

    5. Journal of medieval military history 2002-

      Journal  See: Barber, R. ‘The Military Role of the Order of the Garter’, pp. 1-11.

    6. For honour and fame: chivalry in England, 1066-1500 - Nigel Saul 2011

      Book  See: Saul, N. ‘Edward III and Chivalric Kingship, 1327-99’, chapter 6.

    7. War, government and aristocracy in the British Isles, c.1150-1500: essays in honour of Michael Prestwich - Chris Given-Wilson, Ann J. Kettle, Len Scales 2008 (electronic resource)

      Book  See: Keen, M. ‘Chivalry and English Kingship in the Later Middle Ages’.

    8. Edward III's Round Table at Windsor: the House of the Round Table and the Windsor Festival of 1344 - Julian Munby, Richard W. Barber, Richard Brown 2007

      Book 

    9. Edward III - W. M. Ormrod c2011

      Book 

    10. The book of chivalry of Geoffroi de Charny: text, context, and translation - Richard W. Kaeuper, Elspeth Kennedy, Geoffroi de Charny 1996 (electronic resource)

      Book  See: Geoffrey de Charny and the Order of the Star.

    11. The knights of the Crown: the monarchical orders of knighthood in later medieval Europe 1325-1520 - D'Arcy Jonathan Dacre Boulton 2000, c1987

      Book  See: ch. 5, ‘The Company of the Star’.

    12. Holy warriors: the religious ideology of chivalry - Richard W. Kaeuper 2009

      Book  See: ch. 2.

    13. Chivalry and violence in medieval Europe - Richard W. Kaeuper 2001 (electronic resource)

      Book 

  7. 5) Piety, Memory and Chivalric Display: Knightly Funerals, Commemoration and Tombs 27 items
    Effigies or brasses of recumbent knights are one of the most familiar images of medieval chivalric culture. From their appearance in the thirteenth century, they became an increasingly important aspect of the self-perception and expression of the aristocratic elite. As such, their design, symbolism and the roles they fulfilled in the wider setting of churches or monasteries form a key theme in the study of chivalry. Two famous case studies are furnished by the tomb of the Black Prince in Canterbury Cathedral, and the exceptionally fine and well preserved tomb and chantry chapel of Richard Beauchamp, earl of Warwick. Our seminar examines these, but also seeks to set them in the context of piety, spiritual provision and commemoration that was such an essential feature of later medieval culture. Presentation 1) What does the study of knightly funerals, as ordered in wills, and tomb sculpture reveal about contemporary perceptions of chivalry? Presentation 2) What does a study of brasses and their contexts reveal about the self-perception of the martial nobility and their piety?
    1. Class Reading 7 items
      1. English church monuments in the Middle Ages: history and representation - Nigel Saul, Oxford University Press 2009 (electronic resource)

        Book 

      2. The Tomb of the Black Prince: Contexts and Incongruities - D. Green 2015

        Article  article not part of a library subscription

      3. Medieval death: ritual and representation - Paul Binski c1996

        Book 

    2. Further Reading 13 items
      1. Armour of the English knight, 1400-1450 - Tobias Capwell 2015

        Book 

      2. Medieval military monuments in Lincolnshire - Mark Downing 2010

        Book 

      3. Memory and the medieval tomb - Elizabeth Valdez del Alamo, Carol Stamatis Pendergast c2000

        Book 

      4. Death in medieval Europe: death scripted and death choreographed 2017

        Book  See: Davis, J., ‘Ghostly Knights: Kings' Funerals in 14th century Europe and the Emergence of an International Style’

      5. Contact and Exchange in Later Medieval Europe: Essays in Honour of Malcolm Vale (0) - Hannah SkodaPatrick LantschnerR.L.J. Shaw& 0 more 16 Aug. 2012

        Book  See: Booth, P., ‘The Last Week in the Life of Edward the Black Prince’

      6. For comparison, see:

    3. The Beauchamp Chapel, St Mary’s Warwick 7 items
      1. Medieval death: ritual and representation - Paul Binski c1996

        Book 

      2. The Yorkist Age: proceedings of the 2011 Harlaxton Symposium - Hannes Kleineke, Christian Steer, Harlaxton Symposium, Harlaxton College 2013

        Book  See: Buckle, A., 'Entumbid Right Princely": The Re-Internment of Richard Beauchamp, Earl of Warwick and a Lost Rite'

      3. link to Buckle's online description: 

  8. 6) War and the Non-Combatant 24 items
    The majority of warfare in the fourteenth and fifteenth century consisted not of pitched battles, which were comparatively rare, but in siege warfare and in raiding. The fast moving mounted raid, known as the chevauchée, was scarcely an innovation in the fourteenth century, but the Scots under Robert Bruce had used it to good effect against northern England, and, applied on a still larger scale, it became the hallmark of English campaigns in France during the reign of Edward III. The great chevauchées launched in southern France by the Black Prince in 1355 and 1356 were particularly devastating, and serve to illustrate the aims and methods of such warfare, aimed at destroying the enemy’s economic base and inflicting both material and psychological damage. The principal victims of such a type of warfare were the peasants and townspeople, and this seminar explores the extent to which the warrior elite regarded the targeting of those who did not bear arms as licit, or how far commanders sought to extend protection to them. To what extent were such elements of society seen, whether in theory or in practice, as ‘non-combatants’?
    1. Texts 24 items
      1. The wars of Edward III: sources and interpretations - Rogers, Clifford J. 1999

        Book  See: Edward III’s devastation of the Cambrai region, 1339 pp.71-78 and Chevauchées of the Black Prince, 1356 152-155, 169.

      2. The wars of Edward III: sources and interpretations - Clifford J. Rogers 1999

        Book  See: 'The chevauchées of the Black Prince', pp. 152-155, 169.

      3. The tree of battles: an English version - Bonet, Honore, Coopland, George William 1949

        Book  pp. 153, 183-9 (ch. 48, ch. 91-102)

      4. War, government and aristocracy in the British Isles, c.1150-1500: essays in honour of Michael Prestwich - Given-Wilson, Chris, Kettle, Ann J., Scales, Len, Dawson Books 2008 (electronic resource)

        Book  Includes e-version of Henry V’s Military Ordinances of 1415.

      5. Presentation 1:  To what extent can we speak of a recognized non-combatant status in civil law and the law of arms in the later Middle Ages?

         

      6. Presentation 2 : What light do the military ordinances of Richard II and  Henry V shed on the problems faced by commanders in enforcing discipline in their armies, and on relations with the civilian population?

      7. Class Reading 4 items
        1. Medieval warfare: a history - Ebooks Corporation Limited 1999

          Book  See : ‘War and the Non-Combatant in the Middle Ages’ by C. Allmand. pp. 253-272

        2. The laws of war: constraints on warfare in the Western world - Howard, Michael Eliot, Andreopoulos, George J., Shulman, Mark R. c1994

          Book  See: ‘The Age of Chivalry’ by R.C. Stacey. pp. 27-39. Available via Online Resource button.

        3. War, literature and politics in the late Middle Ages - Allmand, C. T., Coopland, George William 1976

          Book  See: ‘The Tree of Battles of Honoré Bouvet and the Laws of War’ by N. Wright. Available via Online Resource button.

        4. Civilians in the path of war - Grimsley, Mark, Rogers, Clifford J. c2002

          Book  See: ‘By Fire and Sword: Bellum Hostile and “Civilians” in the Hundred Years War’ by C. Rogers, pp. 33-78. Available via Online Resource Button.

      8. Further Reading 14 items
        1. Knights and peasants: the hundred years war in the french countryside - Wright, Nicholas 1998

          Book  See chapters 1, 2 & 3.

        2. The Hundred Years War - Fowler, Kenneth 1971

          Book  See: ‘War and the Non-Combatant’ by C. Allmand.

        3. Rulers and ruled in late medieval England: essays presented to Gerald Harriss - Archer, Rowena E., Walker, Simon, Harriss, G. L. 1995

          Book  See: Keen, M. ‘Richard II’s Ordinances of War of 1385’, pp. 33-48.

        4. The laws of war: constraints on warfare in the Western world - Howard, Michael Eliot, Andreopoulos, George J., Shulman, Mark R. c1994

          Book  See: Constraints on Warfare by M. Howard pp. 1-11.

        5. On the chevauchée itself, see: 6 items
          1. The Hundred Years War - Fowler, Kenneth 1971

            Book  See H. J. Hewitt, ‘The Organization of War’ (reprinted in C. Rogers, The Wars of Edward III (Woodbridge, 1999).)

          2. The organization of war under Edward III, 1338-62 - Hewitt, Herbert James, American Council of Learned Societies c1966

            Book 

          3. Journal of medieval military history - De Re Militari (Organization) 2002-

            Journal  See: Rogers, C. 'The Black Prince in Gascony and France (1355-1357) according to MS78 of Corpus Christi College, Oxford', in Journal of Medieval Military History, Volume 7 (2009), pp. 168-75.

          4. In the steps of the Black Prince: the road to Poitiers, 1355-1356 - Peter Hoskins 2011

            Book 

  9. 7) Chaucer’s Knight: Crusading and Contemporary Criticisms of Chivalry 20 items
    By the late fourteenth century, English success in the Hundred Years war was in marked decline. Edward the Black Prince, after suffering a long and debilitating illness, predeceased his father Edward III in 1376, and the old king, now in his dotage, died the following year. England’s new king, Richard II (1377-1399), had little taste for pursuing the war, and those campaigns which did take place were costly or humiliating failures. A sense of war weariness was reflected in a mounting chorus of criticism, both against what was perceived as a incompetent and corrupt court, but more widely against the abuses of knighthood and the profiteering that was seen to be driving the continuation of the war. A number of authors, notably Geoffrey Chaucer and John Gower, sought to attack the apparent moral decline and corruption of contemporary society, and chivalry was far from immune from such critiques. Chaucer begins his famous Canterbury Tales with vivid portraits of the pilgrims travelling from London to St Thomas’ Becket’s shrine at Canterbury, starting with that of the Knight. But was Chaucer depicting a pious warrior and crusader who was the embodiment of chivalry, or was he, as Terry Jones has suggested in an important revisionist work, in fact painting a picture of a ruthless and immoral mercenary, and thus by extension condemning contemporary knighthood? This seminar uses Chaucer’s depiction of the Knight to explore contemporary criticisms of knighthood, and to ask how far crusading, whether in the Mediterranean or the Baltic, was still regarded as an essential and vibrant dimension of chivalry.
    1. Text 1 item
      1. The Canterbury tales: fifteen tales and the general prologue : authoritative text, sources and backgrounds, criticism - Chaucer, Geoffrey, Kolve, V. A., Olson, Glending c2005

        Book  Many editions of the text. Read The Knight, from The Prologue.

    2. Presentation 1: What does a study of the crusading activities of Henry of Bolingbroke or Marshal Boucicaut contribute to the debate on the chivalric significance of crusading in the later Middle Ages?

       

    3. Presentation 2:What does the evidence of crusading activity among the English aristocracy in thesecond half of the fourteenth century contribute to the debate concerning the interpretation ofChaucer's Knight?

    4. Class reading 6 items
      1. Chaucer's knight: the portrait of a medieval mercenary - Jones, Terry 1994

        Book  Chapters 1-3. Chapter 3, 'Commentary on the Description of the Knight in the General Prologue', pp. 31-141, available via Online Resource button.

      2. Chivalry - Maurice H. Keen c1984

        Book  See: Chapter 3, ‘Chivalry, the Church and the Crusade’

      3. Chaucer and Chivalry re-visited - M. Keen

        Chapter  Available via Online Resource button.

      4. Armies, chivalry and warfare in medieval Britain and France: proceedings of the 1995 Harlaxton Symposium - Matthew Strickland, Harlaxton Symposium 1998

        Book  See: Keen, M., ‘Chaucer’s Knight Revisited’, pp. 1-12.

    5. Further Reading 11 items
      1. The World of Chaucer introduction

        Webpage  A valuable webpage on Chaucer by Glasgow University Library Special Collections

      2. Medievalia et Humanistica NS 1, 1970-27, 2000

        Webpage  A. Blamires, ‘Chaucer’s Re-evaluation of Chivalric Honour’, Medievalia et Humanistica, 5 (1979), 245-67

      3. Chaucer’s Knight and the Mediterranean - A. Luttrell

        Chapter 

      4. Sir William Beauchamp between Lollardy and Chivalry - J. Catto

        Chapter  Available via Online Resource button.

      5. Chivalry, knighthood, and war in the Middle Ages - Susan J. Ridyard 1999

        Book  See: Day, J. F. R., ‘Bernard, Chaucer and the Literary Critique of the Military Class’, pp. 137-150, and Barton Palmer, J.,‘Guillaume de Machaut’s La Prise d’Alexandrie and the Late Medieval Chivalric Ideal’, pp. 195-204.

      6. The knights of the Crown: the monarchical orders of knighthood in later medieval Europe 1325-1520 - Boulton, D'Arcy Jonathan Dacre 2000, c1987

        Book  Read Chapter 7 The Order of the Sword. Cyprus, 1347/59 - 1489

      7. Chivalry, kingship and crusade: the English experience in the fourteenth century - Timothy Guard 2013

        Book  An important new study of the extent of crusading among the English nobility.

      8. For the Teutonic Knights and the Reisen: 3 items
        1. The Northern crusades - Christiansen, Eric 1997

          Book 

        2. The Baltic Crusade - Urban, William L. 1994

          Book 

  10. Two Case Studies 11 items
    1. i) Henry of Bolingbroke 4 items
      One of the sources for Chaucer’s depiction of the Knight may have been Henry of Bolingbroke, earl of Derby, son of John of Gaunt and to become the future Henry IV in 1399. He served on two expeditions with the Teutonic Knights in Prussia.
      1. Henry of Derby’s Expeditions to Prussia 1390-1 and 1392 - F.R.H. Du Boulay

        Chapter  Chapter 8, pp. 153-172, available via Online Resource button.

      2. Henry IV: the establishment of the regime, 1399-1406 - Dodd, Gwilym, Biggs, Douglas 2003

        Book  See: Tuck, A., ‘Henry IV and Chivalry’, pp. 55-72.

      3. Henry IV (New Oxford Dictionary of National Biography) - A. L. Brown, H. Summerson

        Document  For a good introductory survey of Henry IV

    2. ii) Marshal Boucicaut 7 items
      A valuable comparison is the exploits of the famous French commander Marshal Boucicaut, who with John the Fearless of Burgundy, took part in the disastrous crusade which ended in a crushing defeat by the Turks at Nicopolis in 1396.
      1. The crusade of Nicopolis - Atiya, Aziz Suryal 1934

        Book 

      2. Nicopolis 1396 - David Nicolle 1999

        Book 

      3. The Boucicaut Master - Millard Meiss, Kathleen Morand, Edith W. Kirsch, Samuel H. Kress Foundation 1968

        Book  This contains a valuable introduction.

  11. 8) Prisoners and Ransom: Poitiers, 1356 and Agincourt, 1415 46 items
    In 1356, Edward the Black Prince won a resounding victory over the army of King Jean II at Poitiers. Though Geoffrey de Charny was killed in the battle bearing the Oriflamme, the French war banner, Jean himself was captured, along with a great many nobles and knights. A study of the battle not only allows us to see how contemporaries reacted to this great engagement, but also offers an important case study of the operation of ransom, one of the most crucial chivalric conventions. A stark contrast is offered by the battle of Agincourt in 1415, during which Henry V ordered the killing of the noble French prisoners, an action which has led more than one modern author to accuse him of a ‘war crime’. What were Henry’s motives, and how far, in the eyes of contemporaries, was such an action justified?
    1.  

      Presentation 1: To what extent had the legal framework for the effective arbitration of disputes concerning ransom been established by the early fifteenth century?

    2.  

       Presentation 2:  What factors explain the radical difference between the battles of Poitiers and Agincourt in terms of the treatment of captured French nobles?

    3. Texts 44 items
      1. The life and campaigns of the Black Prince from contemporary letters, diaries and chronicles, including Chandos Herald's Life of the Black Prince - Richard W. Barber, Chandos 1986

        Book  See: The battle of Poitiers, 1356, in Chandos Herald’s Life of the Black Prince.

      2. Chronicles - Jean Froissart, Geoffrey Brereton 1968

        Book  See: The Battle of Poitiers, 1356 and the capture of Jean II, pp. 132-45.

      3. The battle of Agincourt: sources and interpretations - Anne Curry, Ebooks Corporation Limited 2015

        Book  See: pp. 37, 47, 73-4, 108-10, 118, 162-71.

      4. Class Reading 4 items
        1. The laws of war in the late Middle Ages - Maurice Keen, Ebooks Corporation Limited 2016

          Book  See: Chapters 9 & 10

        2. Henry's wars and Shakespeare's laws: perspectives on the law of war in the later Middle Ages - Theodor Meron, Oxford University Press 1993 (electronic resource)

          Book  See: Chapter 9, ‘Agincourt: Prisoners of War, Reprisals, and Necessity’.

      5. Further Reading 5 items
        1. Les prisonniers de la bataille de Poitiers - Françoise Bériac-Lainé, Chris Given-Wilson 2002

          Book 

        2. Hoton versus Shakell: A ransom case in the court of chivalry, 1390-5 - Rogers, A Jan 1, 1963

          Article  Deals with the notorious case of the count of Denia, captured at Najera in 1367.

        3. The Wars of the Roses: the soldiers' experience - Anthony Goodman 2006

          Book  See: Chapter 2 ‘Attitudes to War’. Despite the book’s title, this offers a wide ranging discussion of conduct in war in the later Middle Ages more generally.

      6. On Poitiers and the Black Prince 8 items
        1. The black prince - David Green 2001

          Book 

        2. Edward the Black Prince: power in medieval Europe - David Green 2007

          Book 

        3. The battle of Poitiers, 1356 - David Green 2002

          Book 

        4. Studies in medieval history presented to Frederick Maurice Powicke - F. M. Powicke, Richard William Hunt 1948

          Book  See: Mathew, G., ‘Ideals of Knighthood in Late Fourteenth Century England’

        5. The court of Richard II. - Gervase Mathew 1968

          Book  See: Chapter 13, ‘Chivalry’

      7. The Battle of Agincourt, 1415 24 items
        1. The face of battle: a study of Agincourt, Waterloo and the Somme - John Keegan 2004

          Book  A classic work of military history, focusing on the soldiers’ experience of combat. See Chapter 2, Agincourt'

        2. The battle of Agincourt: sources and interpretations - Anne Curry, Ebooks Corporation Limited 2015

          Book  The essential work for the study of the battle, providing translations of all the main sources.

        3. Agincourt: a new history - Anne Curry 2006

          Book  Perhaps the best and most detailed modern analysis of the 1415 campaign and battle.

        4. Agincourt 1415: the archers' story - Anne Curry 2008

          Book  A valuable collection of essays, with a focus on Sir Thomas Erpingham. This book is a reprint of 'The Battle of Agincourt, 1415', ed. A. Curry (Stroud, Tempus, 2000).

        5. Agincourt - Anne Curry, Hew Strachan 2015

          Book  How the battle has been interpreted over the centuries.

        6. The Agincourt companion: a guide to the legendary battle and warfare in the medieval world - Anne Curry, Peter Hoskins, Thom Richardson, Dan Spencer 2015

          Book  A pocket-sized overview.

        7. 24 hours at Agincourt - Michael K. Jones 2016

          Book 

        8. Agincourt 1415: battlefield guide - Michael K. Jones, Matthew Strickland 2005

          Book  Short, racy and atmospheric

        9. Agincourt: the King, the campaign, the battle - Juliet R. V. Barker 2005

          Book  Readable and well-informed.

        10. Agincourt 1415: triumph against the odds - Matthew Bennett 1991

          Book  Brief, well illustrated overview

        11. Henry V, war criminal?: and other Shakespeare puzzles - John Sutherland, Cedric Watts 2000

          Book 

        12. Henry V: new interpretations - Gwilym Dodd 2013

          Book  See: Taylor, C., ‘Henry V, Flower of Chivalry'

        13. Agincourt - Christopher Hibbert 1964

          Book  A good short account.

        14. Agincourt 1415: a tourist's guide to the campaign by car, by bike and on foot - Peter Hoskins, Anne Curry 2014

          Book 

        15. The Battle of Agincourt 2015

          Book  A well illustrated series of essays to accompany the current exhibition on the battle at the Tower of London.

        16. This plan is translated by Allmand, and by Bennett below:

        17. Society at war: the experience of England and France during the Hundred Years War - C. T. Allmand 1998

          Book  See: pp. 194-5

        18. Agincourt 1415: triumph against the odds - Matthew Bennett 1991

          Book  See: pp. 62-6, and Chapter 17 ‘The Development of Battle Tactics’

        19. The great warbow: from Hastings to the Mary Rose - Matthew Strickland, Robert Hardy c2005

          Book  See: Chapters 16 & 17

        20. Hundred Years War: a wider focus - L. J. Andrew Villalon, Donald J. Kagay, MyiLibrary 2005 (electronic resource)

          Book  See: Rogers, C. J., ‘Henry V’s Military Strategy in 1415’. Print copy also available at Main Library Level 8 History LH70 HUN

        21. The soldier in later medieval England - Adrian R. Bell, Anne Curry, Andy King, David Simpkin 2014

          Book  See: Curry, A., ‘Personal links and the nature of the English war retinue : A case study of John Mowbray, earl marshal, and the campaign of 1415’.

        22. The reign of Henry the fifth - James Hamilton Wylie 29/1914

          Book  3 vols.

  12. 9) Gunpowder, Artillery and the Changing Face of Siege Warfare 27 items
    Gunpowder weapons made their appearance in warfare as early as the 1320s, but it was only gradually that guns became effective as changes to design and the manufacture of gunpowder developed. By the early fifteenth century, cannon were a familiar and increasingly important element in the weapons deployed by both besieger and besieged. But what was the impact of the new weaponry, and just when did cannon really begin to pose a serious threat to existing fortifications? How, and how quickly, did fortifications respond to the threat, and how far can we speak in terms of a ‘military revolution’ in regard to guns and their impact before c. 1500? Henry V’s campaigns of conquest in Normandy between 1415 and 1422 afford a valuable case study, as do the campaigns waged by the French king Charles VII against the remaining English possessions in Normandy and Gascony, in which his advanced siege train played an important role.
    1. Texts 4 items
      1. Gesta Henrici Quinti =: The deeds of Henry the Fifth - Taylor, Frank, Roskell, John Smith 1975

        Book  See entry on The siege of Harfleur, 1415.

      2. Bulletin of the John Rylands Library - Henry Guppy, John Rylands Library 1903-1972

        Journal  The surrender of Rouen to Henry V. See: Taylor, F. (ed.), ‘Chronicle of John Strecche for the Reign of Henry V’, in Bulletin of the John Rylands Library, Volume 16 (1932).

      3. Presentation 1: In what ways do the campaigns of Henry V in France from 1415 to 1422 indicate both the strengths and limitations of gunpowder artillery?

      4. Presentation 2:   How significant a factor was artillery in ultimate French victory in the Hundred Years War from c. 1422-1453?

    2. Class Reading 4 items
      1. War in the Middle Ages - Contamine, Philippe 1984

        Book  See chapter 6, ‘Artillery’.

      2. Medieval warfare: a history - Ebooks Corporation Limited 1999

        Book  See chapter 13, ‘The Changing Scene: Guns, Gunpowder and Permanent armies’.

      3. War, literature and politics in the late Middle Ages - Allmand, C. T., Coopland, George William 1976

        Book  See: ‘New Techniques and Old Ideals: The Impact of Artillery on War and Chivalry at the End of the Hundred Years War’ by M. G. A. Vale, pp. 57-72

      4. The medieval city under siege - Corfis, Ivy A., Wolfe, Michael, NetLibrary, Inc 1999 (electronic resource)

        Book  See: 'The Impact of Gunpowder Weaponry on Siege Warfare in the Hundred Years War' by K. De Vries

    3. Further reading 17 items
      1. Hundred Years War: a wider focus - Villalon, L. J. Andrew, Kagay, Donald J., MyiLibrary 2005 (electronic resource)

        Book  See ‘The Walls Come Tumbling Down: The Campaigns of Philip the Good and the Myth of Fortification Vulnerability to Gunpowder Weapons’ by K. De Vries

      2. Arms, armies and fortifications in the Hundred Years War - Curry, Anne, Hughes, Michael 1994

        Book  See: Artillery and the Hundred Years War: Myth and Interpretation, R. Smith pp.151-160

      3. The artillery of the Dukes of Burgundy, 1363-1477 - Smith, Robert D., DeVries, Kelly 2005

        Book 

      4. For the use of artillery by the Burgundian dukes, see also: 3 items
        1. Philip the Good: the apogee of Burgundy - Vaughan, Richard 2002

          Book 

      5. For Henry V and siege warfare: 9 items
        1. Henry V - Allmand, C. T. 1992

          Book  See Chapters 4 & 6.

        2. The reign of Henry the fifth - Wylie, James Hamilton 29/1914

          Book 

        3. Journal of medieval military history - De Re Militari (Organization) 2002-

          Journal  See: D..Spencer, The Provision of Artillery for the 1428 Expedition to France’, Journal of Medieval Military History, 13 (2015), 197-92

        4. Henry V: the practice of kingship - Harriss, G. L. 1985

          Book  ‘Henry V the Soldier and the War in France’ by C. Allmand.

        5. The laws of war in the late Middle Ages - Maurice Keen, Ebooks Corporation Limited 2016

          Book  See Chapter 8: 'Sieges'

        6. The medieval siege - Jim Bradbury 1992

          Book  See: Ch. 10, ‘Conventions and Laws of Siege Warfare’

    4. For the siege of Rouen: 2 items
      1. Henry V - C. T. Allmand 1992

        Book 

      2. The reign of Henry the fifth - James Hamilton Wylie 29/1914

        Book 

  13. 10) Jousts of Peace, Jousts of War: The Tournament and late Medieval Chivalry 19 items
    The tournament was a fundamental mechanism for the expression and development of chivalric ideas. By the fourteenth century, highly regulated jousts between individual knights had become the principal form of the tournament (see text 2 on the jousts of St Ingelvert), but the original form of tournament involving melee combat between large numbers of knights did not completely disappear (see text 1, the tournament from Chaucer's Knight's Tale). During the first part of the fifteenth century, elaborate jousts with a strong theatrical element known as the pas d'armes became very popular (see text 3), while the need to prove oneself in combat in the joust was reflected in the creation of 'votal orders' of chivalry, such as Jean de Bourbon's Order of the Prisoner's Iron (see text 4). These orders also had a powerful dimension of courtly love, stipulating the service of noble women to be among the main aims of the members.
    1. Presentation 1:  How far was Huizinga correct in seeing the pas d'armes of the first half of the fifteenth century as nothing more than decadent and redundant spectacle?

    2. Presentation 2: How and why did combat on foot come to play such an important element in knightly spectacle between c. 1300 and c. 1500?

    3. Texts 6 items
      1. The Canterbury tales: fifteen tales and the general prologue : authoritative text, sources and backgrounds, criticism - Chaucer, Geoffrey, Kolve, V. A., Olson, Glending c2005

        Book  See the melée tournament, from Chaucer, The Knight’s Tale.

      2. Chronicles - Froissart, Jean, Brereton, Geoffrey 1968

        Book  See "The jousts at St Ingelvert" Pp. 132-145 are available via Online Resource button.

      3. Other contemporary accounts of these jousts are given in translation here: 3 items
        1. Muhlberger's World History: Joust at St. Inglevert

          Webpage  Other contemporary accounts of these jousts are given in translation here.

        2. Society at war: the experience of England and France during the Hundred Years War - C. T. Allmand 1973

          Book  See: The Ordinances for Jean de Bourbon's Order of the Prisoner's Iron, pp. 25-27

      4. The Deeds of Jacque Lalaing

        Webpage  Excerpts from Georges Chastellain, The Book of the Deeds of Sir Jacques de Lalaing

    4. Reading 11 items
      1. Chivalry - Keen, Maurice H. c1984

        Book  Chapter 11, ‘Pageantry, Tournies and Solemn Vows’ (and see also chapter 5, ‘The rise of the Tournament’)

      2. The knight and chivalry - Barber, Richard W. 1995

        Book  See chapters 7-8.

      3. The tournament in England, 1100-1400 - Barker, Juliet 1986

        Book  See chapters 5-7.

      4. Tournaments: jousts, chivalry and pageants in the Middle Ages - Barber, Richard W., Barker, Juliet 1989

        Book  See Chapter 5.

      5. Tournament - Crouch, David 2005

        Book 

      6. The study of chivalry: resources and approaches - Chickering, Howell, Seiler, Thomas H. 1988

        Book  See H. Nickel, ‘The Tournament: A Historical Sketch’ and A. Annunziata, ‘Teaching the Pas d’armes’.

      7. Studies in medieval history presented to Frederick Maurice Powicke - Powicke, F. M., Hunt, Richard William 1948

        Book  See N. Deholm-Young, ‘The Tournament in the Thirteenth Century’ pp.204-68.

      8. Jousts and tournaments: Charny and the rules for chivalric sport in fourteenth-century France - Charny, Geoffroi de, Muhlberger, Steven 2002

        Book 

      9. Medieval studies in memory of A. Kingsley Porter - Koehler, Wilhelm Reinhold Walter 1939

        Book  See: R. S. Loomis, ‘Chivalric and Dramatic Imitations of Arthurian Romance’

  14. Digitised Readings (from previous year) 3 items
    1. The knights of the Crown: the monarchical orders of knighthood in later medieval Europe 1325-1520 - Boulton, D'Arcy Jonathan Dacre 2000, c1987

      Book  See Chapter 5, ‘The Company or Society of Our Lady of the Noble House Commonly Called the Company of the Star France, 1344/52 - 1364/80?'. Available via Online Resource button.

    2. Ideals of Knighthood in Late Fourteenth Century England - G. Mathew

      Chapter  pp. 354-362, available via Online Resource button.