globe
  1. Readings 1 item
    1.  

       

      There is no core text for the course.

       

      The readings for each lecture are listed in the following pages. There are generally two (sometimes three) required readings per week (marked with an *) which you MUST read before the lecture. Some readings are marked with an O, which indicates that the reading presents an overview of the subject. The other starred readings will generally be the focus of the discussion. All required readings are available online via the library.

       

      The 'Further Readings' list is in alphabetical order, but I have put in Essential those readings that are essential for essay and exam preparation.

       

      The great majority of journals articles are available online even if a hyperlink is not included. The easiest way to find them is to Google the title and to follow the link to the journal's page. To have access to the full text, you will need to be on campus or to log in with your GUID password (if you do not know it, ask at the library). In some case you will need to access the articles via the Library page. If you are off campus, you might need VPN access.

       

      Students should use Moodle for access to lecture notes and other additional resources, including unpublished readings. Please note that copyright of these pieces, unless otherwise stated, remains with the author/s of the piece.

       

       

       

  2. Block 1 193 items
    1. Week 1 (8 JAN) The role of the (traditional) media in democracy 39 items
      It is a truism that the media plays an essential role in politics and that, if the media fails to perform its duties, the democratic process is negatively affected. But, firstly, in our highly digitalised world, what do ‘media’ mean? Moreover, what are the roles of intermediaries or platforms? Secondly, what are the main democratic duties of the media and especially the news media and journalism? Finally, how are these duties affected by the context to which they are applied and how are they affected by our normative understandings of democracy?
      1. Please note, although it is Week 1, this is a full session and you are expected to read and prepare for it.

      2. Required Readings 3 items
        1. Media and power - James Curran, Taylor & Francis Group 2002

          Book Essential

      3.  

         

        Discussion Questions:

        1. In our highly digitalised world, what does 'the media' mean?   

        2. What's the role of platforms and in which ways are they influential (Nielsen combined with Reuters)?

        3. What are the main democratic duties of the media? Can you think of a recent example for each of these?

        4. Which are, according to Curran, the flaws of 'the conventional liberal approach' to the media's role in democracy?

      4. Further readings 34 items
        1. On the contemporary media ecology and journalism 13 items
          1. The SAGE handbook of social media research methods - Dawson Books 2017

            Book  See: Gillespie, T. Governance of and by platforms

          2. Rethinking journalism again: societal role and public relevance in a digital age - Taylor & Francis Group 2017

            Book  See: Nielsen R. K. News media, search engines and social networking sites as varieties of online gatekeepers, pp. 81-96

          3. The dynamics of political communication: media and politics in a digital age - Richard M. Perloff, Ebooks Corporation Limited 2014

            Book  See: Chapter 2 (defining political communication and media, esp. pp. 36-41)

          4. The Modern News Consumer - Pew Research Centre

            Article  See other relevant reports

        2. On democracy and democratic duties 18 items
          1. Media, markets, and democracy - C. Edwin Baker 2002

            Book Further See: especially Chapter 6.

          2. Media and power - James Curran 2002 (electronic resource)

            Book Essential See: Chapter 8: print copy also available.

          3. The press 2005 (electronic resource)

            Book Further See: Curran, J. (2005). ‘What Democracy Requires of the Media’.

          4. Media System, Public Knowledge and Democracy: A Comparative Study - J. Curran, S. Iyengar, A. Brink Lund, I. Salovaara-Moring 01/03/2009

            Article Essential

          5. The power of news - Michael Schudson 1995

            Book Further See: Chapter 10.

          6. Why democracies need an unlovable press - Michael Schudson, Dawson Books 2008

            Book Essential See: Chapter 2.

          7. Mediatization of politics: understanding the transformation of western democracies 2014 (electronic resource)

            Book Further See: Shehate, A. and J. Stromback (2014) 'Mediation of Political Realities: Media as Crucial Source of Information'.

          8. Four theories of the press - Fred S. Siebert, Theodore Peterson, Wilbur Schramm 1984

            Book Further

          9. Mass media, politics and democracy - John Street 2011

            Book Further See: especially chapter 12.

          10. News on the internet: information and citizenship in the 21st century - David Tewksbury, Jason Rittenberg c2012

            Book Further

          11. Political communication in a high-choice media environment: a challenge for democracy? - Peter Van Aelst, Jesper Strömbäck, Toril Aalberg, Frank Esser 02/01/2017

            Article Essential

          12. A New Standard of News Quality: Burglar Alarms for the Monitorial Citizen - JOHN ZALLER 04/2003

            Article Essential See also other articles in the same issue of this Journal.

        3. Introductions to models of democracy 3 items
          1. Democracy and its critics - Robert Alan Dahl c1989

            Book 

          2. Models of democracy - David Held c1996

            Book 

    2. Week 2 (Jan 15) Media in transitional and non-democratic countries 46 items
      As discussed in the first sessions, the media plays a crucial role in democratic countries. But the media also play important functions in authoritarian countries, both challenging and supporting the regime. This session will address the following questions: How do authoritarian governments try to control the media and to what extent are they successful? Why do they often not censor all critical content? How has the propaganda role of the media in authoritarian states changed over time? What is the influence of the state, markets and technological developments in these processes? The lecture will look at the media in authoritarian states, with a particular focus on the media system in China. In the seminar, there will be a student led discussion about the traditional media and the Internet in China.
      1. 1)    Why do authoritarian governments censor?

        2)    Do they try to censor 'everything', or do they do so selectively? For what reasons and through which mechanisms?

        3)   To what extent the Party/state's control over traditional media and/or the Internet in China is increasing or decreasing? If changing, how so?

        4)   What does the comparison between the former USSR and China tell us about relationship between media liberalisation and political democratisation?

      2. Preparing for the class

         

        • The class will be split into four groups to discuss a particular aspect of the traditional media or the Internet in China. You will be able to see which group you are in by looking on Moodle. If you are not sure, email me (ana.langer@glasgow.ac.uk)

        • In addition to reading to the core reading (Brady), you will need to read ONE paper specific to your group. These are listed below under 'Readings on China for the class discussion'.

        • When reading your group's paper answer the following questions:

        1)    What questions does the reading for your group seek to answer?

        2)    What methods do they use in their study?

        3)    What are their main conclusions?

        4)   For Group 1 and 3-4: According to the readings you have done, to what extent the Party/state's control over traditional media and/or the Internet in China is increasing or decreasing? If changing, how so?

        4) For Group 2: What does the comparison between the former USSR and China tell us about relationship between media liberalisation and political democratisation?)

        Before the class, you should prepare some bullet points on these questions to share with your group. After discussing these questions in your groups, each group will present their conclusions to the whole class.

      3. Core reading 1 item
      4. Readings on China for the class discussion 4 items
        To see which of the readings you need to look at, check Moodle to see which group you are in
        1. Group 1 1 item
          1. Media commercialization and authoritarian rule in China - Daniela Stockmann, Ebooks Corporation Limited 2013

            Book  See: Chapter 1

        2. Group 2 1 item
        3. Group 3 1 item
        4. Group 4 1 item
      5. Further Readings 10 items
        1. Comparing media systems beyond the western world - Daniel C. Hallin, Paolo Mancini 2012

          Book Further

        2. The net delusion: how not to liberate the world - Evgeny Morozov 2011

          Book Essential

        3. Public sentinel: news media & governance reform 2010

          Book  Role of the News Media in the Governance Reform Agenda, 29-31st May 2008, John F. Kennedy School of Government.

      6. China 29 items
        1. China's thought management 2014

          Book 

        2. China's Strategic Censorship - Peter Lorentzen 04/2014

          Article Essential

        3. The Politics of Chinese Media: Consensus and Contestation - Bingchun Meng, SpringerLink (Online service) 2018 (electronic resource)

          Book 

        4. Routledge handbook of Chinese media 2018

          Book 

        5. Changing media, changing China 2011

          Book  See: Introduction (also recommended to read other chapters).

        6. Media commercialization and authoritarian rule in China - Daniela Stockmann, Ebooks Corporation Limited 2013

          Book Essential

        7. China’s Weibo: Is faster different? - Jonathan Sullivan 02/2014

          Article Essential

        8. Forbidden Feeds: Government Controls on Social Media in China - J. Tager, K. Glenn Bass, S. Lopez 2017

          Document  Focus on Section 1 and 2

        9. Comparing media systems beyond the western world - Daniel C. Hallin, Paolo Mancini 2012

          Book  See: Zhao, Y. Understanding China’s media system in a world historical context, pp. 143-176

    3. Week 3 (22 Jan) Media biases I – types and sources of bias 27 items
      Bias is a constant preoccupation not only for academics but also for journalist, politicians and anyone interested on the media’s role in politics. Almost everyone thinks that the media is biased, but what does bias mean, what sort of distortions it refers to? How does it relate to the concepts of balance and objectivity? Why can it be argued that all media coverage is in some ways biased? The lecture will explore different forms of media bias and their underlying causes. We will also discuss methodological issues on how to detect and measure bias. The seminar discussion will be student-lead.
      1. Core readings (read in this order) 3 items
        1. Media performance: mass communication and the public interest - Denis McQuail 1992

          Book Essential See: Chapter 14, pp. 183-195, available via Online Resource button (see also 15-17)

        2. Making sense of media and politics: five principles in political communication - Gadi Wolfsfeld 2011

          Book Essential See: Chapter 3 (pp. 41-71. See also Chapter 4

      2. Discussion questions

        1)    What is bias and what are the different types of bias?

        2)    How does bias relate to objectivity?

        3)    What are the main sources of bias?

        4)    Can bias be avoided? In which ways, if at all?

        5)    How has bias been manifested, according to Berry (2016) in the coverage of 'austerity'? How would less biased coverage of austerity would look like?

         

      3. Further readings 23 items
        1. Bias conceptual 5 items
          1. The Oxford handbook of political communication - Oxford University Press 2014

            Book Essential See: Bennett, W.L. ‘Press-Government Relations in a Changing Media Environment’

          2. Balance and bias in journalism: representation, regulation, and democracy - Guy Starkey c2007

            Book 

        2. Case studies of bias 18 items
          1. Embedding the Truth - Sean Aday, Steven Livingston, Maeve Hebert 01/2005

            Article 

          2. Shaping immigration news: a French-American comparison - Rodney Benson 2014

            Book  See: Introduction

          3. Bad news - Peter Beharrell, Glasgow University Media Group 1976-1980

            Book  See: vol 1, especially Chapters 6 & 7

          4. Bad news - Peter Beharrell, Glasgow University Media Group 1976-1980

            Book  See: Vol 2. More Bad News

          5. Framing Obesity - Regina G. Lawrence 07/2004

            Article 

          6. The role of the press in the war on asylum - Greg Philo, Emma Briant, Pauline Donald 10/2013

            Article 

          7. Framing European politics: A Content Analysis of Press and Television News - Holli A. Semetko, Patti M. Valkenburg Valkenburg 01/06/2000

            Article 

          8. Where is the Frame? - Baldwin Van Gorp 12/2005

            Article 

          9. Frames of protest: social movements and the framing perspective - Hank Johnston, John A. Noakes, Ebooks Corporation Limited c2005 (electronic resource)

            Book  See: Walgrave. S. and J. Manssens. Mobilizing the White March: Media Frames as Alternatives to Movement Organizations

    4. Week 4 (29 Jan) Media biases II – Framing and news sources 33 items
      In this session, we will continue to discuss the issue of bias, but we will approach it from a different angle. Firstly, we will discuss one particular form of bias: framing, which has become one of the most important concepts in political communication research. Framing refers both to the content of media texts and the effects of news framing on people’s attitudes, opinions and, potentially, behavior. In the session we will focus on the first dimension, leaving effects for week 7. Secondly, we will discuss the importance of news sources and the difference in access for different types of actors, and how this is affected by context and the new communication environment.
      1. • The class will be split into four groups. You will be able to see which group you are in by looking on Moodle. If you are not sure, email me (ana.langer@glasgow.ac.uk)

        • In addition to reading to the core reading (Wolfsfeld), you will need to read ONE paper specific to your group (listed below).  

        • When reading your group's paper answer the following questions:

        1)    What are the aims and research question? NB: The former is generally broader, and the latter more specific

        2)    What are the hypotheses (if any)? Which literatures/theories are they derived from?

        3)    What methods do they use in their study? (Groups 1-3; paper 4 is theoretical)

        4)    What are their main findings and key argument(s)?

        5)   For Group 1, 2 and 3. According to the reading for your group, to what extent elites dominate the framing process? What does it depend on?

        5) For Group 4: How has the process of framing and the role of different actors changed in the new communication environment? To what extent has it enhanced the influence of non-elites?

        6) For all groups: what are the main limitations or weaknesses of the paper?

         

        Before the class, you should prepare some bullet points on these questions to share with your group. After discussing these questions in your groups, each group will present their conclusions to the whole class. Groups might be asked to prepare a very short power points presentations, max. 2 slides and 5 minutes; no additional images; so if you have one, bring a laptop to class.  

      2. Core reading for all 1 item
        1. Making sense of media and politics: five principles in political communication - Gadi Wolfsfeld 2011

          Book Essential See: Chapter 1 and review notes for chapter 3 (definition of frames).

      3. Groups readings 4 items
        1. Group 1: 1 item
          1. None Dare Call It Torture: Indexing and the Limits of Press Independence in the Abu Ghraib Scandal - W. Lance Bennett, Regina G. Lawrence, Steven Livingston 01/09/2006

            Article Essential

        2. Group 2: 1 item
        3. Group 3: 1 item
        4. Group 4: 1 item
      4. Further readings 12 items
        1. The Oxford handbook of political communication - Oxford University Press 2014

          Book Essential See: Bennett, W.L.‘Press-Government Relations in a Changing Media Environment’

        2. Governing with the news: the news media as a political institution - Timothy E. Cook 2005

          Book 

        3. Bad news - Peter Beharrell, Glasgow University Media Group 1976-1980

          Book  See: vol 1. especially Chapters 6 & 7

        4. Bad news - Peter Beharrell, Glasgow University Media Group 1976-1980

          Book  See: vol. 2 More bad news

        5. Framing Obesity - Regina G. Lawrence 07/2004

          Article 

        6. The role of the press in the war on asylum - Greg Philo, Emma Briant, Pauline Donald 10/2013

          Article 

        7. Framing European politics: A Content Analysis of Press and Television News - Holli A. Semetko, Patti M. Valkenburg Valkenburg 01/06/2000

          Article 

      5. Framing conceptual 12 items
        1. Framing Theory - Dennis Chong, James N. Druckman 06/2007

          Article 

        2. The SAGE handbook of political communication - Holli A. Semetko, Margaret Scammell c2012

          Book  See: De Vreese, C. and S. Lecheler. News Framing Research: An Overview and New Developments

        3. Media Images and the Social Construction of Reality - William A. Gamson, David Croteau, William Hoynes, Theodore Sasson 1992

          Article 

        4. The dynamics of political communication: media and politics in a digital age - Richard M. Perloff, ProQuest (Firm) 2018

          Book Essential See: Chapter 8: Framing

        5. Framing public life: perspectives on media and our understanding of the social world - Stephen D. Reese, Oscar H. Gandy, August E. Grant c2003

          Book 

      6. Framing methodology 2 items
        1. Sourcebook for political communication research: methods, measures, and analytical techniques - E. Page Bucy, R. Lance Holbert 2011

          Book  See: Chong, D. and J. Druckman. Identifying Frames in Political News

      7. For Framing effects see session on Media power and effects I: citizens

    5. Week 5 (5 Feb) Gender, media coverage and election campaigns 13 items
      Historically, politics and femininity have been constructed as each other’s antithesis. Women have been constructed as belonging to the family and the private domain, and men to work and the public domain. Moreover, women have predominantly portrayed as emotional, nurturing and compassionate, whereas men have been regarded as rational, efficient and individualistic. However, the last two decades have seen a rising tide of women elected to parliaments throughout the globe, and more women as leaders of governments. Has the glass ceiling cracked at last? What’s the role of media in process? How does gender affect the media coverage and campaigning? How has it evolved over time?
      1. #For this week, every student must do a basic content analysis of media coverage of a leading female politician of their choice (e.g. Theresa May, Nicola Sturgeon, Hillary Clinton, Angela Merkel, Dilma Rousseff; you can choose any female politician). How much is she covered, how is she covered (e.g. what is the focus, do they mention personality, appearance, etc.), to what extent does this follow the patterns mentioned in the literature? In carrying out this analysis, use the required readings as guidance (although obviously yours will be much simplified) #

      2. Read 1 item
        1. Cracking the highest glass ceiling: a global comparison of women's campaigns for executive office - Rainbow Murray, Dawson Books c2010 (electronic resource)

          Book Essential See: Introduction and Conclusion

      3. AND at least ONE of the following: 8 items
        1. Press Effects, Public Opinion, and Gender - Melissa K. Miller, Jeffrey S. Peake 10/2013

          Article Essential

        2. Personalization, gender, and social media: gubernatorial candidates’ social media strategies - Shannon C. McGregor, Regina G. Lawrence, Arielle Cardona 02/2017

          Article Essential

        3. OR

      4. Websites 2 items
      5. Discussion questions:

        1.    What does it mean that the relationship between media and politics is gendered?

        2.    In which regards is the coverage of male and female candidates and politicians different? Why?

        3.    Does gendered coverage affect all female politicians de the same way? Which variables (factors) can affect the degree and characteristics of gendered coverage?

        4.    Can we expect the situation in Scotland to be different? How, why?

        5.    What did you find in the case you explored? Summarise in 5 bullet points; the first one has to explain what you did, the others one what you found

    6. Further Readings 35 items
      1. Women political leaders and the media - Donatella Campus 2013 (electronic resource)

        Book Essential

      2. Traits versus Issues - Johanna Dunaway, Regina G. Lawrence, Melody Rose, Christopher R. Weber 09/2013

        Article 

      3. Just the Facts? Media Coverage of Female and Male High Court Appointees in Five Democracies - Maria C. Escobar-Lemmon, Valerie Hoekstra, Alice Kang, Miki Caul Kittilson 06/2016

        Article 

      4. Habermas and the public sphere - Craig J. Calhoun c1992

        Book  See: Fraser, N. ‘Rethinking the Public Sphere: A Contribution to the Critique of Actually Existing Democracy’

      5. See also:

      6. Women on the run: gender, media, and political campaigns in a polarized era - Danny Hayes, Jennifer L. Lawless 2016

        Book 

      7. Beyond the double bind: women and leadership - Kathleen Hall Jamieson 1995

        Book 

      8. Hillary Clinton's race for the White House: gender politics and the media on the campaign trail - Regina G. Lawrence, Melody Rose 2010

        Book 

      9. Mothers and others: the role of parenthood in politics 2018

        Book  See: especially Part 2

      10. Ms. Prime Minister: gender, media, and leadership - Linda J. (Linda Jean) Trimble 2017

        Book Essential

      11. Entertaining the citizen: when politics and popular culture converge - Liesbet van Zoonen c2005

        Book  See: especially Chapter 6

  3. Block 2: Media, Communication, Elections and Policy 175 items
    1. Week 6 (12 Feb) Media power and effects I: on attitudes and voting 28 items
      Although politicians, journalists and citizens are convinced that the media—both during electoral campaigns and day-to-day politics—have important effects on voters, political communication has traditionally emphasised the importance of other variables. In fact, they have found media effects to be limited, albeit occasionally significant. This is not to say, however, that media do not matter. In fact, especially considering recent socio-political changes, we know they (can) matter greatly for citizens’ attitudes and behaviour, and even for the functioning and legitimacy of the democratic system. In this session we will present an overview of the models of media effects and how they evolved over time (introducing the concepts of media agenda setting, priming and framing) and in different contexts. We will also discuss other forms of media power and influence.
      1. Essential Reading 3 items
        1. The Oxford handbook of political communication - Oxford University Press 2014

          Book Essential See: Iyengar, S. A Typology of Media Effects

        2. Trump and the media - ProQuest (Firm) 2018

          Book Essential See: Kreiss, D. Media is about Identity not Information

      2. Discussion questions:

        1.    Why is it difficult to identify media effects?

        2.    Under which circumstances are people more likely to be influenced by the media?

        3.    How have research paradigms on media influence evolved over time?

        4.    What are the main types of effects that the media have in voting decisions? How do these effects challenge theories of 'limited effects'?

        5.    What are Kreiss' key arguments? To what extent do they apply to the UK context?

      3. Further Readings 19 items
        1. Media and power - James Curran 2002 (electronic resource)

          Book Essential See: Chapter 4

        2. Elections and voters in Britain - D. T. Denver c2012

          Book Essential See: esp. chapters 1, 3, 5, 6 and 8.

        3. News that matters: television and American opinion - Shanto Iyengar, Donald R. Kinder 2010

          Book Essential

        4. Everything you think you know about politics-- and why you're wrong - Kathleen Hall Jamieson 2000

          Book Essential Overview of subject. See: 'Do campaigns matter?'

        5. The people's choice: how the voter makes up his mind in a presidential campaign - Paul Felix Lazarsfeld, Bernard Berelson, Hazel Gaudet c1965

          Book Further

        6. News and news sources: a critical introduction - Paul Manning 2001

          Book Further See: Chapter 8.

        7. Media power in politics - Doris A. Graber c2011

          Book Further See: Mc Quail, D. ‘The Influence and Effects of Mass Media’.

        8. On message: communicating the campaign - Pippa Norris 1999

          Book Essential See: Chapter 1 and conclusions.

        9. The reasoning voter: communication and persuasion in presidential campaigns - Samuel L. Popkin 1991

          Book Further

        10. Mass media, politics, and democracy - John Street 2001

          Book Further See: Chapters 4 & 11.

        11. Handbook of political communication research - Lynda Lee Kaid 2004

          Book Further See: Weaver, D., M. McCombs and D. Shaw ‘Agenda-Setting Research: Issues, Attributes and Influences’ (esp. pp. 257-268).

      4. Specific to referenda 5 items
        1. Political campaigning in referendums: framing the referendum issue - C. H. de Vreese, Holli A. Semetko 2004

          Book 

    2. Week 7 (19 Feb) Media & election campaigns in the digital and ‘anti-politics’ age (x 2). At the ‘cutting edge’ of electioneering: the case of the United States 8 items
      Parties and candidates have always campaigned to get elected. However, socio political changes and the increasing importance of the media (first television and lately the Internet) have transformed political communication and the way electoral campaigns are conducted. In these two sessions, we will discuss the main characteristics of contemporary electoral campaigns, and compare them across countries and across time, exploring similarities and differences, and continuity and change.
      1. In the first session we will focus on US campaigns, and especially the presidential election of 2016.

      2. Essential readings 5 items
        1. The hybrid media system: politics and power - Andrew Chadwick 2017

          Book Essential See: Chapter 10 (see also chapters 6 and 7).

        2. The Data That Turned the World Upside Down - Hannes Grasseger, Mikael Krogerus 2017

          Article Essential

        3. The Myths of Data-Driven Campaigning - Jessica Baldwin-Philippi 02/10/2017

          Article Essential

        4. See also:

      3. Discussion Questions: 1 item
        1.  

          Questions for Chadwick (2017)

           

          1. What is the key argument of the chapter? What does Chadwick mean by hybridity?

          2. Did Trump use social media, and especially Twitter, to 'bypass' or to interact with mainstream media? How and why?

          3. In which ways, according to Chadwick, were the use of data and Facebook crucial to the campaign? How does this contrast with what we hear in the news about it?

          4. In which ways does Trump's campaign constitute continuity and in which ways a break from previous campaigns, especially Obama's?

          5. How does Chadwick explain the emergence of 'fake news' at this point in time? How does this relate to the broader arguments of the chapter/book?

           

      4. Other discussion questions (compare across the readings)

        6. Has the importance of data driven campaigning, and especially psychological-profiling, being exaggerated?

        7.  Which digital tools (other than Facebook) are important on cutting-edge electoral campaigning?

    3. Week 8 (26 Feb) Media & election campaigns in the digital and ‘anti-politics’ age (x 2): comparative cases (group work) 18 items
      In the second session, we will continue to explore the characteristics of electoral campaigns. We will now focus on selected case studies in comparative perspective, so exploring simialrities and differences across cases and over time.
      1.  

        General Discussion questions:

        1)    To what extent and in which ways these campaigns are like those in the US?

        2)    Which factors (also called variables) explain similarities and differences across countries and within countries (i.e. across campaigns)?

        3)    What do the changes mean for democratic politics?

         

        For this session, each group will have to pick a country, research for academic sources about campaigns in that country (there are several suggestions listed below) and make a SHORT presentation (up to 7 minutes). Information about the composition of the groups and what you have to do are in Moodle. You can pick any country, as long as you follow the guidelines of what to focus on. If you have any questions, email me.

      2. Core Readings ((the group must read both, but you can divide in two and each sub-group do one core reading) 2 items
        1. Routledge handbook of internet politics - Andrew Chadwick, Philip N. Howard, Dawson Books 2010 (electronic resource)

          Book Essential See: Anstead, N. and A. Chadwick (2008) Parties, election campaigning, and the Internet.

        2. Digital politics in Western democracies: a comparative study - Cristian Vaccari, Ebooks Corporation Limited 2013

          Book  See: Introduction.

      3. For The Group Work 13 items
        1. Austria 3 items
          1. See also, 

        2. France 4 items
          1. See also,

          2. Volume 14, Issue 2, June 2016

            Article  Special issue of French Politics. See chapters by Maarek and Lilleker (others are useful as well).

        3. Germany 2 items
          1. Four Functions of Digital Tools in Election Campaigns - Andreas Jungherr 07/2016

            Article  (see also other papers in the same issue).

        4. United Kingdom 4 items
          1. See also:

          2. Political Communication in Britain 2017

            Book  See: Lilleker, D. G., & Jackson, D. (2017). The Social Media Campaign: Mobilisation and Persuasion, pp. 293-313

      4. For all 2 items
        1. For political advertising in different countries see:

        2. Routledge handbook of political advertising - Christina Holtz-Bacha, Marion R. Just 2017 (electronic resource)

          Book 

    4. Further Readings for both weeks 7 and 8 49 items
      1. US election campaigns (especially 2016) 16 items
        1. Digital politics after Trump - David Karpf 03/04/2017

          Article Further

        2. Partisanship, Propaganda, and Disinformation: Online Media and the 2016 U.S. Presidential Election - Robert M. Faris, Hal Roberts, Bruce Etling, Nikki Bourassa 2017

          Article Further See: at least executive summary, intro and conclusion. See also: https://www.cjr.org/analysis/breitbart-media-trump-harvard-study.php

        3. The victory lab: the secret science of winning campaigns - Sasha Issenberg 2013

          Book Further

        4. The stealth media? Groups and targets behind divisive issue campaigns on Facebook - Young Mie Kim, Jordan Hsu, David Neiman, Colin Kou 02/10/2018

          Article Further

        5. What We Should Really Be Asking About Media Attention to Trump - Regina G. Lawrence, Amber E. Boydstun 02/01/2017

          Article Further

        6. US Election Analysis 2016: Media, Voters and the Campaign 2016

          Book Further See: esp. chapters 9, 10, 12, 57, 60, 64, 74 and 75. See also similar volumes in the same website about EU referendum, and General Elections UK 2015 and 2017

        7. Trump and the media 2018

          Book Further See: Waisbord, S. et al. 'Trump and the Great Disruption in Public Communication', pp. 25-32

        8. How Trump Drove Coverage to the Nomination: Hybrid Media Campaigning - Chris Wells, Dhavan V. Shah, Jon C. Pevehouse, JungHwan Yang 10/2016

          Article Further

      2. General and comparative campaign studies 13 items
        1. Comparative politics 2017

          Book Further See: Esser, F. and Pfetsch, B. 'Comparing Political Communication'

        2. Comparing political communication: theories, cases, and challenges - Frank Esser, Barbara Pfetsch 2004

          Book Further See: Hallin, D. and Mancini, P. 'Americanization, Globalization and Secularization'

        3. Routledge handbook of political advertising - Christina Holtz-Bacha, Marion R. Just 2017

          Book Further It covers a number of countries around the world

        4. A virtuous circle: political communications in postindustrial societies - Pippa Norris 2000

          Book Further

        5. The handbook of election news coverage around the world - Jesper Strömbäck, Lynda Lee Kaid 2008

          Book Further

        6. Political communication 2014

          Book Further See: Strömbäck, J. and Kiousis, S. 'Strategic political communication in election campaigns', pp. 109–128

        7. Politics, media, and modern democracy: an international study of innovations in electoral campaigning and their consequences - David L. Swanson, Paolo Mancini 1996

          Book Further See: especially introduction and conclusion

        8. The professionals speak: Practitioners’ perspectives on professional election campaigning - Jens Tenscher, Karolina Koc-Michalska, Darren G Lilleker, Juri Mykkänen 04/2016

          Article Further

        9. Air wars: television advertising and social media in election campaigns, 1952-2016 - Darrell M. West, Brookings Institution 2018

          Book Further

      3. Focused on the Internet/Digital Campaigns 20 items
        1. Handbook of digital politics 2015

          Book Further See: Kreis, D. 'Digital Campaigns'

        2. Political campaigning, elections and the internet: comparing the US, UK, France and Germany - Darren G. Lilleker, Nigel A. Jackson 2011

          Book Further

        3. Ground wars: personalized communication in political campaigns - Rasmus Kleis Nielsen c2012

          Book Further

        4. The Routledge handbook of elections, voting behavior and public opinion 2018

          Book Further See: Ward, S. et al. 'Digital Campaigning', pp. 319-339

    5. Week 9 (5 Mar) Media, communication & populism 40 items
      Although populism is not new, it appears to be on the rise recently in many democracies. The election of Donald Trump in the United States shocked the world, but it is not entirely unique. In Europe, for example, populism on both the left and the right has also increased its electoral support. In this session, we will discuss how populism can be defined, its causes, and the role of media and communication.
      1. Discussion questions

        1)  Do populist actors use a unique and specific style of political communication? What are the characteristics? Are the same for left- and right-wing populism?

        2)  Which roles do the (different type of) media play in the rise of populism?

        3) How do the media's roles vary across different contexts, such left and right or across countries?

      2. Essential readings 8 items
        1. Populist political communication in Europe - Dawson Books 2017

          Book Essential See: Especially chapter 2 (see also others, especially 27 and 28)

        2. US Election Analysis 2016

          Document Essential See: especially chapters by L. Bennett and P. Norris.

        3. Optional but highly recommended - accessible, engaging Guardian feature about populism.

        4. How to spot a populist - Mark Rice-Oxley 03/12/2018

          Article Essential Optional but highly recommended - accessible, engaging Guardian feature about populism.

        5. Group 1:

        6. Group 2: 

      3. Further readings 31 items
        1. Media, communication and populism 16 items
          1. Twenty-first century populism: the spectre of Western European democracy - Daniele Albertazzi, Duncan McDonnell 2008

            Book 

          2. How the Media Shape Perceptions of Right-Wing Populist Leaders - Linda Bos, Wouter van der Brug, Claes de Vreese 28/04/2011

            Article 

          3. Populism as an Expression of Political Communication Content and Style: A New Perspective - Claes H. de Vreese, Frank Esser, Toril Aalberg, Carsten Reinemann 10/2018

            Article Essential

          4. Trump and the media - ProQuest (Firm) 2018

            Book  See: Kreiss, D.The Media are about Identity not Information, pp. 93-100

          5. The media and neo-populism: a contemporary comparative analysis - Gianpietro Mazzoleni, Julianne Stewart, Bruce Horsfield 2003

            Book Essential

        2. Populism conceptual 15 items
          1. What is populism? - Jan-Werner Müller 2016

            Book 

          2. The Populist Zeitgeist - Cas Mudde 09/2004

            Article Essential

          3. Populism in Europe and the Americas: Threat or Corrective for Democracy? - Cas Mudde, Cristóbal Rovira Kaltwasser 2012 (electronic resource)

            Book 

          4. Populism: a very short introduction - Cas Mudde, Cristóbal Rovira Kaltwasser 2017

            Book 

          5. Rise of the - J. Eric Oliver, Wendy M. Rahn 09/2016

            Article 

    6. Week 10 (12 Mar) Media power and effects II: on Policy Making 10 items
      There is a strong sense that the media can change government priorities and force policy changes, especially by making some problems more salient than others (i.e. agenda setting) and by presenting issues in a way that implies particular policy solutions (i.e. framing). Moreover, this potential has been strengthened by a shift towards advocacy, especially in the press. However, there is little empirical evidence demonstrating strong effects. In fact, as discussed in week 5, quite a few studies have argued that the opposite is actually true: the media’s agenda follows the government’s agenda, not the other way around. This is not to say that the media have no impact on public policy but rather that the media is ONE of the actors that influence the process and that their influence is contingent. There is a strong sense that the media can change government priorities and force policy changes, especially by making some problems more salient than others (i.e. agenda setting) and by presenting issues in a way that implies particular policy solutions (i.e. framing). Moreover, this potential has been strengthened by a shift towards advocacy, especially in the press. However, there is little empirical evidence demonstrating strong effects. In fact, quite a few studies have argued that the opposite is actually true: the media’s agenda follows the government’s agenda, not the other way around. This is not to say that the media have no impact on public policy but rather that their influence is contingent. There is also evidence of indirect effects such as those emerging from the personal relations between journalists and politicians. For the seminar, you must think of an example of a specific policy where you think the media has had a strong influence and complete the form from Moodle. You must bring it to class.
      1.  

        For the seminar, you must think of an example of a specific policy where you think the media has had a strong influence and complete the form from Moodle. You must bring it to class

         

         

      2. Essential readings 9 items
        1. AND at least ONE of the case studies below

        2. Framing the Immigration Policy Agenda - Rianne Dekker, Peter Scholten 04/2017

          Article Essential

        3. What's the Fuss About? The Interplay of Media Hypes and Politics - Christian Elmelund-Præstekær, Charlotte Wien 07/2008

          Article Essential

        4. The Media’s Role in Lawmaking - Lotte Melenhorst 07/2015

          Article Essential

    7. Discussion questions:

      1.    In which ways can the media affect policy-making?

      2.    Which variables affect the degree of media's influence in policy making?

      3.    How has this changed with recent transformations in the political and media sphere?

      4.    For the seminar, you must think of an example of a specific policy where you think the media has had a strong influence and complete the form from Moodle. You must bring it to class

    8. Further readings 21 items
      1. Political communication 2014

        Book Further See: Aelst, P. Media, political agendas and public policy, pp.231-248.

      2. Do the media govern?: politicians, voters, and reporters in America - Shanto Iyengar, Richard Reeves c1997

        Book Further See: Baumgartner, F.R., Jones, B.D. and B.L. Leech ‘Media Attention and Congressional Agendas’

      3. Public opinion, the press, and public policy - J. David Kennamer 1994

        Book Further

      4. Agendas, alternatives, and public policies - John W. Kingdon c2003

        Book Further

      5. Public policy and mass media: the interplay of mass communication and political decision making - Sigrid Koch-Baumgarten, Katrin Voltmer 2010

        Book Further

      6. The rational public: fifty years of trends in Americans' policy preferences - Benjamin I. Page, Robert Y. Shapiro 1992

        Book Further

      7. The Mass Media's Political Agenda-Setting Power - Stefaan Walgrave, Stuart Soroka, Michiel Nuytemans 06/2008

        Article Further

      8. Taken by storm: the media, public opinion, and U.S. foreign policy in the Gulf War - W. Lance Bennett, David L. Paletz 1994

        Book Further

      9. The CNN effect: the myth of news foreign policy and intervention - Piers Robinson, MyiLibrary 2002 (electronic resource)

        Book Further See: especially introduction and chapters 1, 2 and 6

      10. The CNN effect: the myth of news foreign policy and intervention - Piers Robinson 2002

        Book Further See: especially introduction and chapters 1, 2 and 6

      11. Media and political conflict: news from the Middle East - Gadi Wolfsfeld 1997

        Book Further